የስልጣን ቁጥጥር: ዴሞክራሲያዊና ህገ-መንግስታዊ መሰረቱ


የስልጣን ቁጥጥር: ዴሞክራሲያዊና ህገ-መንግስታዊ መሰረቱ

የስልጣን ቁጥጥር: ዴሞክራሲያዊና ህገ-መንግስታዊ መሰረቱ theory demands that all public servants, elected or nonelected, be accountable to the people. Obviously, this requires the creation of certain oversight mechanisms so that administrative behavior can be watched and controlled.aከሁሉም ስልጣንን የመቆጣጠር ኃላፊነትና ግዴታ ከተጣለባቸው ተቋማት መካከል የህዝብ ተወካዮች ስራ አስፈፃሚውንና በስሩ ያሉትን አስፈፃሚ አካላት በቅርበት የመከታተልና የመቆጣጠር አይነተኛ አደራና ኃላፊነት ተጥሎባቸዋል፡፡ ድምዳሜው ከውክልና ዲሞክራሲ (representative democracy) መርህ ይመነጫል፡፡ ይህ መርህ ከተጠያቂነት ጋር ያለውን ትስስር አሜሪካዊው የፖለቲካ ሳይንስ እና የአስተዳደር ህግ ምሁር ተንታኝ እንደሚከተለው ይገልፀዋል፡፡The ideal of representative democracy is that important decisions are taken by our elected representatives. In practice, this is not possible. Parliamentary bodies are too large and fractious to be effective decision making organs. The role of such bodies is, therefore, often confined to scrutinising and passing legislative proposals initiated by a smaller executive committee of their members; and to calling members of that executive committee to account for their actions.bየሚኒስትሮች ም/ቤት ሆነ እያንዳንዱ የአስተዳደር መ/ቤት በህዝብ ተወካዮች ም/ቤት የወጣን ህግና ፖሊሲ ለማስፈፀም በውክልና በሚሰጣቸው የስልጣን ገደብ ውስጥ ደንብና መመሪያ ማውጣት እንደሚጠበቅባቸው እሙን ነው፡፡ እነዚህ አካላት ይህን የህግ አውጭነት ስልጣን የሚያገኙት በቀጥታ ህገ-መንግስቱ ሳይሆን በውክልና ከተወካዮች ም/ቤት ብቻ ነው፡፡ የውሳኔ ሰጪነት (አስተዳደራዊ ዳኝነት) ስልጣን እንዲሁ በቀጥታ ከምክር ቤቱ ይመነጫል፡፡የህዝብ ተወካዮች ም/ቤት የህግ አውጪነት ስልጣናቸውን በከፊል ቆርሰው ሲያስተላልፉ ሆነ ለውሳኔ ሰጪው ዳኝነታዊ ስልጣን ሲሰጡ ስልጣን የተቀበለው አካል ከስልጣኑ ገደብ አለማለፉና ህጋዊ ስልጣኑንም ፍትሀዊ በሆነ መንገድ በአግባቡ የተገለገለበት ስለመሆኑ ማረጋገጥ ይጠበቅበታል፡፡ ስልጣን ተቀባይን ከስልጣን ሰጪው በበለጠ የመቆጣጠር ኃላፊነት ያለበት አካል የለም፡፡በውክልና ዲሞክራሲ ህገ-መንግስታዊ ስርዓት ውስጥ የህዝብ ተወካዮች አይነተኛ ሚና በተለምዶ እንደሚታወቀው ህግ ማውጣት ሳይሆን ስራ አስፈፃሚውን በመቆጣጠር የመንግስትን ተጠያቂነት በተግባር ማረጋገጥ እንደሆነ ግንዛቤ ሊወሰድበት ይገባል፡፡ በካቢኔ መንግስታዊ ስርዓት (Cabinet Government) ላይ ንጽጽራዊ ጥናት ያደረጉ ሁለት ምሁራን ይህንኑ ሀሳብ በማጉላት በአጭሩ እንደሚከተለው ይገልጹታል፡፡The essence of parliamentary democracy is the accountability of the government (or cabinet or executive or administration) to the legislature.cየውክልና ዲሞክራሲን በሚከተል ሀገር ውስጥ የህዝብ ተመራጮች አይነተኛ ሚና ህግ ማውጣት አይደለም፡፡ በዚህ አይነቱ የመንግስት ስርዓት ውስጥ የህዝብ ተወካዮች በቀጥታ የህዝቡን ጉዳይ መምራትና ማስተዳደር አቅም የላቸውም፡፡ ስለሆነም የስራ አስፈፃሚነት ተግባር እንዲያከናውኑ ከመካከላቸው ጥቂት ተወካዮች ይመርጣሉ፡፡ ከዚህ አንጻር ጠቅላይ ሚኒስትሩ እንዲሁም ከሞላ ጎደል ሁሉም የሚኒስትሮች ም/ቤት አባላት ከህዝብ ተወካዮች መካከል የሚመለመሉ እንደመሆኑ ስራ አስፈፃሚው ‘ንዑስ የፓርላማ ኮሚቴ’ ነው ማለት እንችላለን፡፡በአገራችን አዋጆች የሚመነጩት ከስራ አስፈፃሚው አካል ነው፡፡ የህዝብ ተወካዮችና ስራ አስፈፃሚው አካል የአንድ ፓርቲ አባላት እንደመሆናቸው በስራ አስፈፃሚው የቀረበ ረቂቅ አዋጅ በህዝብ ተወካዮች ም/ቤት ውድቅ የሚደረግበት አጋጣሚ እጅግ በጣም ጠባብ ነው፡፡ ረቂቅ አዋጁን ውድቅ ማድረግ ከራስ ጋር መቃረን ይሆናል፡፡ በተወካዮችና በስራ አስፈፃሚው መካከል የሚፈጠር ፍጥጫ የመንግስትን ስልጣን በጨበጠው የፖለቲካ ፓርቲ ውስጥ ወደ መሰነጣጠቅ ሊያመራ የሚችል የመከፋፈል አደጋ ምልክት በመሆኑ ፍጥጫው በዲሞክራሲያዊ ውይይትና የፓርቲ ዲሲፕሊን (ስርዓቱ ኢ-ዴሞክራሲያዊ ከሆነ ደግሞ በጡጫና በግልምጫ) ካልተወገደ የፓርቲው ህልውና አደጋ ውስጥ ይወድቃል፡፡ስለሆነም በውክልና ዲሞክራሲ ስርዓት ውስጥ የህዝብ ተወካዮች ይሁንታ አስቀድሞ የተፈታ ጉዳይ ስለመሆኑ ግምት መውሰድ ይቻላል፡፡ በህግ ማውጣት ሂደቱ ውስጥ ተወካዮች ከስራ አስፈፃሚው የሚመነጨውን ረቂቅ አዋጅ ቴክኒካልና ቀላል ለውጦች በማድረግ አዋጁን መልክ ከማስያዝ (በግልጽ አማርኛ ከቀለም ቀቢነት) ያለፈ ሚና የላቸውም፡፡ ይህ መሆኑ የተወካዮች ምክር ቤትን ሚና የሚያሳንስ ወይም እንደ ድክመት የሚቆጥር ሳይሆን የራሱ የውክልና ዲሞክራዊ መገለጫና ነፀብራቅ ተደርጐ መወሰድ ይኖርበታል፡፡ የህዝብ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት አባላት ‘ህግ አጽዳቂዎች’ እንጂ ህግ አውጪዎች አይደሉም፡፡ ቀዳሚው ህገ መንግስታዊ ሚናቸው ስራ አስፈፃሚውን በመከታተልና በመቆጣጠር የመንግስት ተጠያቂነትን በተግባር ማረጋገጥ ነው፡፡

የቁጥጥር ስልቶችፓርላማ ስራ አስፈፃሚውንና በስሩ ያሉትን የአስተዳደር አካላት የሚቆጣጠርበትና የሚከታተልበት መንገድና ስርዓት የተለያየ መልክ ይይዛል፡፡ የኢ.ፌ.ዲ.ሪ ህገ-መንግስት የተለያዩ የቁጥጥር ስርዓቶችን ጠቅለል ባለ መልኩ ያስቀመጠ ሲሆን ዝርዝር አፈፃፀሙ በተለያዩ ህጎችና የተወካዮች ምክር ቤት የውስጥ ደንቦች ተደንግጎ ይገኛል፡፡እስከ 1994 ዓ.ም ድረስ ምክር ቤቱ ህገ መንግስታዊ ሚናውን በህግ አውጪነት ብቻ ገድቦታል፡፡ ለመጀመሪያ ጊዜ በ1988 ዓ.ም ያወጣው የህግ አወጣጥ ስነ ስርዓት አዋጅ ቁጥር 14/1988 ሆነ ይህንኑ አዋጅ ያሻሻለው አዋጅ ቁ. 33/1988 የህግ አወጣጥን ብቻ ከሚመለከቱት ጥቂት ያልተብራሩ ድንጋጌዎች በስተቀር ስለ ቁጥጥር ስርዓት የሚሉት ነገር የላቸውም፡፡አዋጅ ቁ. 14 እና ማሻሻያውን አዋጅ ቁ. 33/1998 ‘ን’ የሻረው የሕዝብ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት የህግ አወጣጥ ስነ-ስርዓት፣ የኮሚቴዎች አደረጃጀትና አሠራር አዋጅ ቁ. 271/1994 ምክር ቤቱ ለመጀመሪያ ጊዜ አስፈፃሚውን መቆጣጠር ህገ መንግስታዊ ሚናው መሆኑን የተረዳበት ተግባራዊ ጅማሮ ብሎ መውሰድ ይቻላል፡፡ በቀጣይ በ1997 ዓ.ም የወጣውና አዋጅ ቁ. 272/1994 ‘ን’ የተካው የተሻሻለው የኢ.ፌ.ዲ.ሪ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት የአሠራርና የስነ ምግባር አዋጅ ቁ. 470/1997 ምክር ቤቱ ስር አስፈፃሚውን የሚቆጣጠርበትን ስርዓት በዝርዝርና በተብራራ መልኩ በመደንገግ ምክር ቤት ህገ መንግስታዊ ግዴታውን እንዲወጣ ውጤታማ የህግ ማዕቀፍ ዘርግቷል፡፡ ይህ አዋጅ ከአንድ ዓመት ላልበለጠ ጊዜ ስራ ላይ ሳይቆይ በአዋጅ ቁ. 503/1998 ሙሉ በሙሉ ተሸሯል፡፡ በአዋጁ መግቢያ ላይ እንደተመለከተው ምክር ቤቱ የህግ አወጣጡንና አሰራሩን በራሱ ደንብ መወሰን አስፈላጊ ሆኖ ስላገኘው አዋጁን መሻር አስፈልጓል፡፡በዚሁ መሰረት አሰራሩንና የህግ አወጣጥ ስርዓቱን በራሱ ውስጠ ደንብ የተካው ሲሆን ከ2008 ዓ.ም. ጀምሮ ተፈጻሚነት ያገኘውና ተሻሽሎ የወጣው የአሰራርና የአባላት የሥነ-ምግባር ደንብ ቁ. 6/2008 በቁጥጥር ስርዓቱ ላይ አዳዲስ አካሄዶችን በማካተት ለተግባራዊ የቁጥጥር ስርዓት መኖር አመቺ ሁኔታ ፈጥሯል፡፡የህዝብ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት ስራ አስፈፃሚውን የመቆጣጠር ስልጣኑ ከህግ መንግስቱ አንቀጽ 55 /7/፣ /11/፣ /13/፣/17/ እና /18/ እና 77/2/ ይመነጫል፡፡ የስራ አስፈፃሚውን የተጠያቂነት መርህ የሚወስነው የህገ መንግስቱ አንቀጽ 77/2/ ጠቅላይ ሚኒስትሩና የሚኒስትሮች ምክር ቤት ለህዝብ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት ተጠሪ እንደሆኑ ይደነግጋል፡፡ የተጠሪነት መርህ ስራ አስፈፃሚው ለድርጊቱ፣ ውሳኔውና እርምጃው ፖለቲካዊ ተገቢነትና ህገ መንግስታዊነት ለህግ አውጭው መግለጫና ማብራሪያ እንዲሰጥና ለውድቀቶቹ ኃላፊነት እንዲሸከም ያስገድዳል፡፡ ይህንን በሚያጠናክር መልኩ የአንቀጽ 55/17/ ድንጋጌ የተወካዮች ምክር ቤት ጠቅላይ ሚኒስትሩንና ሌሎች የፌደራል መንግስት ባለስልጣናት ለጥያቄ የመጥራትና የህግ አስፈፃሚውን አካል አሰራር የመመርመር ስልጣን አጎናጽፎታል፡፡በአንቀጽ 55/7/ ላይ የተመለከተው የመከላከያ፣ የፀጥታ ኃይሎችና የፖሊስ አደረጃጀት የመወሰን እንዲሁም ሰብዓዊ መብት የመጣስ ተግባራት ሲፈጸሙ አጣርቶ እርምጃ የመውሰድ ስልጣን በእርግጥ በተግባር ስራ ላይ ከዋለ የዜጎችን ህገ መንግስታዊ መብት ውጤታማ በሆነ መንገድ ያስጠብቃል፡፡ በዚሁ አንቀጽ ንዑስ አንቀጽ 11 እና 13 የተመለከቱት በጀት የማጽደቅ እንዲሁም የዳኞችና የከፍተኛ ባለስልጣናትን ሹመት የማጽደቅ ስልጣን ቀጥተኛ የስልጣን መቆጣጠሪያ መንገድ ባይሆንም ከሌሎች የቁጥጥርና የክትትል መንገዶች ጋር ተዳምሮ ህግ አውጭው በተግባር ሊጠቀምበት የሚችል ውጤታማ የስልጣን መቆጣጠሪያ ስልት ነው፡፡

ተጠያቂነት እና የህዝብ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት ሚናየተጠያቂነት መርህ ይዘትና ገፅታውየተጠያቂነት መርህ ውሳኔ ሰጪዎች በአንድ ጠያቂ አካል ፊት ቀርበው የድርጊታቸውን ህጋዊነት፣ ፍትሀዊነት እና ትክክለኛነት እንዲያስረዱ የሚጠየቁበት መንገድ ነው፡፡

ተጠያቂነት እና የህዝብ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት ሚናየተጠያቂነት መርህ ይዘትና ገፅታውየተጠያቂነት መርህ ውሳኔ ሰጪዎች በአንድ ጠያቂ አካል ፊት ቀርበው የድርጊታቸውን ህጋዊነት፣ ፍትሀዊነት እና ትክክለኛነት እንዲያስረዱ የሚጠየቁበት መንገድ ነው፡፡ ይህም በህግ ወይም በፓለቲካዊ የስልጣን ቁጥጥር ስልቶች ይተገበራል፡፡ ፖለቲካዊ ቁጥጥር በህግ አውጭው አማካይነት የሚደረግ ቁጥጥር ሲሆን ትኩረቱ የመንግስት ውሳኔዎች፣ ድርጊቶችና እንቅስቃሴዎች ፖለቲካዊ ተገቢነት መመርመርና በቅርበት መከታተል ነው፡፡a በዚህም መሰረት የመንግስት ባለስልጣናት በህግ አውጭው ፊት ቀርበው ውሳኔያቸው ወይም ድርጊታቸው ከፖሊሲ አቅጣጫዎች አንጻር ትክክለኛ እና አስፈላጊ መሆኑን ማስረዳት ይጠበቅባቸዋል፡፡ህጋዊ ቁጥጥር በአንጻሩ በመደበኛ ፍ/ቤቶች እና በተወሰነ መልኩ በአስተዳደር ፍ/ቤቶች የሚደረግ የስልጣን ቁጥጥርን ይመለከታል፡፡ ህጋዊ ቁጥጥር የስልጣንን ህጋዊነትና ፍትሀዊነት ከማረጋገጥ ባለፈ የውሳኔውን ይዘት ማለትም ትክክለኛነት ወይም ተገቢነት አስመልክቶ ፍተሻ የሚደረግበት የቁጥጥር ስልት አይደለም፡፡ ፍ/ቤቶቸ የፖሊሲ ጥያቄዎች ላይ የሚወስኑ ከሆነ በስራ አስፈፃሚ የስልጣን ክልል ውስጥ በመግባት የስልጣን ክፍፍል መርህን በመጣስ ለስልጣናቸው ህገ-መንግስታዊ መሰረት ያጣሉ፡፡‘ተጠያቂነት’ የሚለው ቃል የሶስት ንዑስ ሀሳቦች ድምር ውጤት ነው፡፡ እነዚህም ጠያቂ፣ ተጠያቂ እና ጥያቄ ብሎ መከፋፈል ይቻላል፡፡ በአንድ ህገ-መንግስታዊ ስርዓት ውስጥ ተጠያቂነት አለ ለማለት፤ጠያቂው አካል የቱ ነው?ተጠያቂው አካል ማን ነው?መጠየቅ ምንድነው? የመጠየቂያ መንገዱስ?ብለን ራሳችንን መጠየቅና ለጥያቄዎቹ ምላሽ ማግኘት ይገባናል፡፡ ለጥያቄዎቹ ምላሽ በመሻት የምናደርገው ትንተና በአሁኑ ወቅት በአገራችን ያለውን ህገ መንግስታዊ ስርዓት መሰረት ያደረገ ይሆናል፡፡የዲሞክራሲ አንደኛው ገጽታ መንግስት ለህዝብ ተጠያቂ የሚሆንበት ስርዓት ነው፡፡ ሆኖም በተግባር ደረጃ ሙሉ በሙሉ ቀጥተኛ ህዝባዊ ተጠያቂነትን ማሳካት የማይቻል በመሆኑ በምርጫ የህዝብ ውክልና የተሰጣቸው እንደራሴዎች ስለህዝቡ ሆነው በመንግስት ላይ ክትትል እና ቁጥጥር ያደርጋሉ፡፡ በአጭር አነጋገር ጠያቂው አካል በተለምዶ ህግ አውጪ ወይም ፓርላማ ተብሎ የሚጠራው ተቋም እንደሆነ እናያለን፡፡ የኢ.ፌ.ዲ.ሪ ህገ መንግስት መንግስትን የመቆጣጠር እና ተጠያቂነቱን የማረጋገጥ ስልጣንና ግዴታ የህዝብ ተወካዮች ም/ቤት ስለመሆኑ በማያሻማ አነጋገር አስቀምጦታል፡፡ጠያቂው ከታወቀ በቀጣይነት የሚነሳው ጥያቄ ተጠያቂ የሚሆነው አካል ማነው? የሚለው ይሆናል፡፡ ተጠያቂነት ጠቅለል ባለ መልኩ ሲታይ ከስራ አስፈፃሚው ባሻገር የፓርላማውንና የፍ/ቤቶችን ተጠያቂነት ጭምር የሚወክል ቢሆንም የእነዚህ ተጠያቂነት ከአስተዳደር ህግ የጥናት ወሰን ውጪ በመሆኑ ትኩረታችንን በመንግስት ተጠያቂነት ማለትም በስራ አስፈፃሚው ተጠያቂነት ላይ ብቻ እንገድባለን፡፡በአገራችን በፌደራል መንግስት ደረጃ የስራ አስፈፃሚነት ስልጣን የተሰጠው ለጠቅላይ ሚኒስትሩና ለሚኒስትሮች ም/ቤት እንደመሆኑ የመንግስት ተጠያቂነት የሚኒስትሮችን የነጠላ እና የወል ተጠያቂነት ያመለክታል፡፡ በህዝብ ተመርጠው የአስፈፃሚነት ስልጣን የተሰጣቸው ሚኒስትሮችና ሌሎች የመንግስት መ/ቤት ባለስልጣናት ለሚያስፈጽሙት ህግና ፖሊሲ የነጠላ ተጠያቂነት እንዲሁም በሚኒስትሮች ም/ቤት አባልነታቸው (የሚኒስትሮች ም/ቤት አባል ከሆኑ) የጋራ ተጠያቂነት አለባቸው፡፡ ይህም ማለት አንድ ሚኒስትር በስሩ ላሉት የአስተዳደር መ/ቤቶች የስራ አፈፃፀም እንዲሁም ራሱ ለሚመራው ሚኒስትር መ/ቤት እንቅስቃሴ በግል ቀጥተኛ ተጠያቂነት አለበት፡፡ ከዚህም ባሻገር ሚኒስትሩ በሚኒስትሮች ም/ቤት አባልነቱ ም/ቤቱ ለሚወስዳቸው እርምጃዎች የጋራ ተጠያቂነት አለበት፡፡ በኢ.ፌ.ዲ.ሪ ህገ መንግስት አንቀጽ 72/2/ ግልፅ ሆኖ እንደተደነገገው፤የሚኒስትሮች ምክር ቤት አባላት በመንግስት ተግባራቸው በጋራ ለሚሰጡት ውሳኔ የጋራ ኃላፊነት አለባቸው፡፡በመጨረሻም የመጠየቅ ይዘትና ትርጓሜ እንዲሁም የተጠያቂነት መንገዱና ስልቱ ሊዳሰስ የሚገባው ነጥብ ነው፡፡ ለመሆኑ መጠየቅ ማለት ምን ማለት ነው?መጠየቅ የሚለው ቃል ተጠያቂነትን (Responsibility) እና ኃላፊነትን (Accountability) ያመለክታል፡፡ ተጠያቂ (Respond-ability) መሆን ማለት መግለጫ ወይም ማብራሪያ የመስጠት እንዲሁም ትክክለኛነቱን ማስረዳት ማለት ነው፡፡ ይህም በዋነኛነት በህዝብ ተወካዮች ም/ቤት ፊት በአካል ቀርቦ ከምክር ቤቱ ለሚነሱ ጥያቄዎች በቂ ምላሽ መስጠት፣ ለምክር ቤቱ ትክክለኛና የተሟላ መረጃ የመስጠት ግዴታን ይጨምራል፡፡ተጠያቂነት መግለጫ በመስጠት ብቻ አያበቃም፡፡ በተለያዩ ምክንያቶች ተጠያቂው ለቀረቡለት ጥያቄዎች አሳማኝ እና በቂ ምላሽ ሳይሰጥ ሊቀር ይችላል፡፡ ከዚህም ባሻገር ሆነ ብሎ ወይም በቸልተኝነት ለም/ቤቱ የተሳሳተ መረጃ ሊያቀርብ ወይም የተፈለገውን መረጃ ለመስጠት ፈቃደኛ የማይሆንበት አጋጣሚ ይኖራል፡፡ በእነዚህ ሁሉ ድምር ውጤቶች ምክንያት የተጠያቂው ስህተት እና ድክመት በግልጽ ከታየ ተጠያቂነት በማዕቀብ (sanction) መታገዝ አለበት፡፡ስለሆነም ሁለተኛው የተጠያቂነት ገጽታ ኃላፊነት የመውሰድ ግዴታ ነው፡፡ ኃላፊነት ሲወሰድ ህገ-ወጥ እርምጃ ወይም ተግባር ከተፈጸመ፣ ህግና ፖሊሲውን የማስፈጸም ድክመትና ቸልተኝነት ከታየ የሚመለከተው ሚኒስትር ወይም ባለስልጣን ስህተቱና ድክመቱ የሚያስከትለውን ውጤት መቀበል ይጠበቅበታል፡፡ ኃላፊነትን የመቀበል ውጤት በገዛ ፈቃድ ስልጣን መልቀቅ ወይም አለፈቃድ ከስልጣን የመወገድ እርምጃ ያስከትላል፡፡በገዛ ፈቃድ ስልጣን መልቀቅ በብዙ ዲሞክራሲያዊ አገራት የተለመደ ቢሆንም መልካም አስተዳደር ባልሰፈነበት አገር በመንበረ ስልጣን ላይ መጣበቅና ሙጭጭ ማለት በተግባር ይከሰታል፡፡ እዚህ ላይ በገዛ ፈቃዱ ስልጣን መልቀቅ ያለበት ሚኒስትር ኃላፊነት ሳይወስድ ቢቀር ‘አላየሁም! አልሰማሁም!’ ቢል የሚከተለው ማዕቀብ ምንድ ነው? ብሎ መጠየቅ አግባብነት አለው፡፡ በሌላ አነጋገር አንድ ሚኒስትር ግዙፍ ስህተትና ጥፋት መስራቱ ተረጋግጦ እያለ በገዛ ፈቃዱ ስልጣኑን ካልለቀቀ የተወካዮች ምክር ቤት ምን ማድረግ ይችላል? የኢ.ፌ.ዲ.ሪ ህገ መንግስት አንቀጽ 55/17/ የም/ቤቱን የመጠየቅና የመመርመር ስልጣን በግልጽ ዕውቅና በመስጠት መውሰድ የሚችላቸውን እርምጃዎች በዝምታ አልፎታል፡፡ ከዚህ አንጻር ግዙፍ ግድፈት የታየበትን ሚኒስቴር ወይም ባለስልጣን ከስልጣኑ ለመሻር የሚችልበት ህገ መንግስታዊ ብቃት የለውም፡፡

የቁጥጥር ስልቶችፓርላማ ስራ አስፈፃሚውንና በስሩ ያሉትን የአስተዳደር አካላት የሚቆጣጠርበትና የሚከታተልበት መንገድና ስርዓት የተለያየ መልክ ይይዛል፡፡ 

የቁጥጥር ስልቶችፓርላማ ስራ አስፈፃሚውንና በስሩ ያሉትን የአስተዳደር አካላት የሚቆጣጠርበትና የሚከታተልበት መንገድና ስርዓት የተለያየ መልክ ይይዛል፡፡ የ ኢ.ፌ.ዲ.ሪ ህገ-መንግስት የተለያዩ የቁጥጥር ስርዓቶችን ጠቅለል ባለ መልኩ ያስቀመጠ ሲሆን ዝርዝር አፈፃፀሙ በተለያዩ ህጎችና የተወካዮች ምክር ቤት የውስጥ ደንቦች ተደንግጎ ይገኛል፡፡እስከ 1994 ዓ.ም ድረስ ምክር ቤቱ ህገ መንግስታዊ ሚናውን በህግ አውጪነት ብቻ ገድቦታል፡፡ ለመጀመሪያ ጊዜ በ1988 ዓ.ም ያወጣው የህግ አወጣጥ ስነ ስርዓት አዋጅ ቁጥር 14/1988 ሆነ ይህንኑ አዋጅ ያሻሻለው አዋጅ ቁ. 33/1988 የህግ አወጣጥን ብቻ ከሚመለከቱት ጥቂት ያልተብራሩ ድንጋጌዎች በስተቀር ስለ ቁጥጥር ስርዓት የሚሉት ነገር የላቸውም፡፡አዋጅ ቁ. 14 እና ማሻሻያውን አዋጅ ቁ. 33/1998 ‘ን’ የሻረው የሕዝብ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት የህግ አወጣጥ ስነ-ስርዓት፣ የኮሚቴዎች አደረጃጀትና አሠራር አዋጅ ቁ. 271/1994 ምክር ቤቱ ለመጀመሪያ ጊዜ አስፈፃሚውን መቆጣጠር ህገ መንግስታዊ ሚናው መሆኑን የተረዳበት ተግባራዊ ጅማሮ ብሎ መውሰድ ይቻላል፡፡ በቀጣይ በ1997 ዓ.ም የወጣውና አዋጅ ቁ. 272/1994 ‘ን’ የተካው የተሻሻለው የኢ.ፌ.ዲ.ሪ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት የአሠራርና የስነ ምግባር አዋጅ ቁ. 470/1997 ምክር ቤቱ ስር አስፈፃሚውን የሚቆጣጠርበትን ስርዓት በዝርዝርና በተብራራ መልኩ በመደንገግ ምክር ቤት ህገ መንግስታዊ ግዴታውን እንዲወጣ ውጤታማ የህግ ማዕቀፍ ዘርግቷል፡፡ ይህ አዋጅ ከአንድ ዓመት ላልበለጠ ጊዜ ስራ ላይ ሳይቆይ በአዋጅ ቁ. 503/1998 ሙሉ በሙሉ ተሸሯል፡፡ በአዋጁ መግቢያ ላይ እንደተመለከተው ምክር ቤቱ የህግ አወጣጡንና አሰራሩን በራሱ ደንብ መወሰን አስፈላጊ ሆኖ ስላገኘው አዋጁን መሻር አስፈልጓል፡፡በዚሁ መሰረት አሰራሩንና የህግ አወጣጥ ስርዓቱን በራሱ ውስጠ ደንብ የተካው ሲሆን ከ2008 ዓ.ም. ጀምሮ ተፈጻሚነት ያገኘውና ተሻሽሎ የወጣው የአሰራርና የአባላት የሥነ-ምግባር ደንብ ቁ. 6/2008 በቁጥጥር ስርዓቱ ላይ አዳዲስ አካሄዶችን በማካተት ለተግባራዊ የቁጥጥር ስርዓት መኖር አመቺ ሁኔታ ፈጥሯል፡፡የህዝብ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት ስራ አስፈፃሚውን የመቆጣጠር ስልጣኑ ከህግ መንግስቱ አንቀጽ 55 /7/፣ /11/፣ /13/፣/17/ እና /18/ እና 77/2/ ይመነጫል፡፡ የስራ አስፈፃሚውን የተጠያቂነት መርህ የሚወስነው የህገ መንግስቱ አንቀጽ 77/2/ ጠቅላይ ሚኒስትሩና የሚኒስትሮች ምክር ቤት ለህዝብ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት ተጠሪ እንደሆኑ ይደነግጋል፡፡ የተጠሪነት መርህ ስራ አስፈፃሚው ለድርጊቱ፣ ውሳኔውና እርምጃው ፖለቲካዊ ተገቢነትና ህገ መንግስታዊነት ለህግ አውጭው መግለጫና ማብራሪያ እንዲሰጥና ለውድቀቶቹ ኃላፊነት እንዲሸከም ያስገድዳል፡፡ ይህንን በሚያጠናክር መልኩ የአንቀጽ 55/17/ ድንጋጌ የተወካዮች ምክር ቤት ጠቅላይ ሚኒስትሩንና ሌሎች የፌደራል መንግስት ባለስልጣናት ለጥያቄ የመጥራትና የህግ አስፈፃሚውን አካል አሰራር የመመርመር ስልጣን አጎናጽፎታል፡፡በአንቀጽ 55/7/ ላይ የተመለከተው የመከላከያ፣ የፀጥታ ኃይሎችና የፖሊስ አደረጃጀት የመወሰን እንዲሁም ሰብዓዊ መብት የመጣስ ተግባራት ሲፈጸሙ አጣርቶ እርምጃ የመውሰድ ስልጣን በእርግጥ በተግባር ስራ ላይ ከዋለ የዜጎችን ህገ መንግስታዊ መብት ውጤታማ በሆነ መንገድ ያስጠብቃል፡፡ በዚሁ አንቀጽ ንዑስ አንቀጽ 11 እና 13 የተመለከቱት በጀት የማጽደቅ እንዲሁም የዳኞችና የከፍተኛ ባለስልጣናትን ሹመት የማጽደቅ ስልጣን ቀጥተኛ የስልጣን መቆጣጠሪያ መንገድ ባይሆንም ከሌሎች የቁጥጥርና የክትትል መንገዶች ጋር ተዳምሮ ህግ አውጭው በተግባር ሊጠቀምበት የሚችል ውጤታማ የስልጣን መቆጣጠሪያ ስልት ነው፡፡

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