የስልጣን ቁጥጥር: ዴሞክራሲያዊና ህገ-መንግስታዊ መሰረቱ


የስልጣን ቁጥጥር: ዴሞክራሲያዊና ህገ-መንግስታዊ መሰረቱ

Democratic theory demands that all public servants, elected or nonelected, be accountable to the people. Obviously, this requires the creation of certain oversight mechanisms so that administrative behavior can be watched and controlled.aከሁሉም ስልጣንን የመቆጣጠር ኃላፊነትና ግዴታ ከተጣለባቸው ተቋማት መካከል የህዝብ ተወካዮች ስራ አስፈፃሚውንና በስሩ ያሉትን አስፈፃሚ አካላት በቅርበት የመከታተልና የመቆጣጠር አይነተኛ አደራና ኃላፊነት ተጥሎባቸዋል፡፡ ድምዳሜው ከውክልና ዲሞክራሲ (representative democracy) መርህ ይመነጫል፡፡ ይህ መርህ ከተጠያቂነት ጋር ያለውን ትስስር አሜሪካዊው የፖለቲካ ሳይንስ እና የአስተዳደር ህግ ምሁር ተንታኝ እንደሚከተለው ይገልፀዋል፡፡The ideal of representative democracy is that important decisions are taken by our elected representatives. In practice, this is not possible. Parliamentary bodies are too large and fractious to be effective decision making organs. The role of such bodies is, therefore, often confined to scrutinising and passing legislative proposals initiated by a smaller executive committee of their members; and to calling members of that executive committee to account for their actions.bየሚኒስትሮች ም/ቤት ሆነ እያንዳንዱ የአስተዳደር መ/ቤት በህዝብ ተወካዮች ም/ቤት የወጣን ህግና ፖሊሲ ለማስፈፀም በውክልና በሚሰጣቸው የስልጣን ገደብ ውስጥ ደንብና መመሪያ ማውጣት እንደሚጠበቅባቸው እሙን ነው፡፡ እነዚህ አካላት ይህን የህግ አውጭነት ስልጣን የሚያገኙት በቀጥታ ህገ-መንግስቱ ሳይሆን በውክልና ከተወካዮች ም/ቤት ብቻ ነው፡፡ የውሳኔ ሰጪነት (አስተዳደራዊ ዳኝነት) ስልጣን እንዲሁ በቀጥታ ከምክር ቤቱ ይመነጫል፡፡የህዝብ ተወካዮች ም/ቤት የህግ አውጪነት ስልጣናቸውን በከፊል ቆርሰው ሲያስተላልፉ ሆነ ለውሳኔ ሰጪው ዳኝነታዊ ስልጣን ሲሰጡ ስልጣን የተቀበለው አካል ከስልጣኑ ገደብ አለማለፉና ህጋዊ ስልጣኑንም ፍትሀዊ በሆነ መንገድ በአግባቡ የተገለገለበት ስለመሆኑ ማረጋገጥ ይጠበቅበታል፡፡ ስልጣን ተቀባይን ከስልጣን ሰጪው በበለጠ የመቆጣጠር ኃላፊነት ያለበት አካል የለም፡፡በውክልና ዲሞክራሲ ህገ-መንግስታዊ ስርዓት ውስጥ የህዝብ ተወካዮች አይነተኛ ሚና በተለምዶ እንደሚታወቀው ህግ ማውጣት ሳይሆን ስራ አስፈፃሚውን በመቆጣጠር የመንግስትን ተጠያቂነት በተግባር ማረጋገጥ እንደሆነ ግንዛቤ ሊወሰድበት ይገባል፡፡ በካቢኔ መንግስታዊ ስርዓት (Cabinet Government) ላይ ንጽጽራዊ ጥናት ያደረጉ ሁለት ምሁራን ይህንኑ ሀሳብ በማጉላት በአጭሩ እንደሚከተለው ይገልጹታል፡፡The essence of parliamentary democracy is the accountability of the government (or cabinet or executive or administration) to the legislature.cየውክልና ዲሞክራሲን በሚከተል ሀገር ውስጥ የህዝብ ተመራጮች አይነተኛ ሚና ህግ ማውጣት አይደለም፡፡ በዚህ አይነቱ የመንግስት ስርዓት ውስጥ የህዝብ ተወካዮች በቀጥታ የህዝቡን ጉዳይ መምራትና ማስተዳደር አቅም የላቸውም፡፡ ስለሆነም የስራ አስፈፃሚነት ተግባር እንዲያከናውኑ ከመካከላቸው ጥቂት ተወካዮች ይመርጣሉ፡፡ ከዚህ አንጻር ጠቅላይ ሚኒስትሩ እንዲሁም ከሞላ ጎደል ሁሉም የሚኒስትሮች ም/ቤት አባላት ከህዝብ ተወካዮች መካከል የሚመለመሉ እንደመሆኑ ስራ አስፈፃሚው ‘ንዑስ የፓርላማ ኮሚቴ’ ነው ማለት እንችላለን፡፡በአገራችን አዋጆች የሚመነጩት ከስራ አስፈፃሚው አካል ነው፡፡ የህዝብ ተወካዮችና ስራ አስፈፃሚው አካል የአንድ ፓርቲ አባላት እንደመሆናቸው በስራ አስፈፃሚው የቀረበ ረቂቅ አዋጅ በህዝብ ተወካዮች ም/ቤት ውድቅ የሚደረግበት አጋጣሚ እጅግ በጣም ጠባብ ነው፡፡ ረቂቅ አዋጁን ውድቅ ማድረግ ከራስ ጋር መቃረን ይሆናል፡፡ በተወካዮችና በስራ አስፈፃሚው መካከል የሚፈጠር ፍጥጫ የመንግስትን ስልጣን በጨበጠው የፖለቲካ ፓርቲ ውስጥ ወደ መሰነጣጠቅ ሊያመራ የሚችል የመከፋፈል አደጋ ምልክት በመሆኑ ፍጥጫው በዲሞክራሲያዊ ውይይትና የፓርቲ ዲሲፕሊን (ስርዓቱ ኢ-ዴሞክራሲያዊ ከሆነ ደግሞ በጡጫና በግልምጫ) ካልተወገደ የፓርቲው ህልውና አደጋ ውስጥ ይወድቃል፡፡ስለሆነም በውክልና ዲሞክራሲ ስርዓት ውስጥ የህዝብ ተወካዮች ይሁንታ አስቀድሞ የተፈታ ጉዳይ ስለመሆኑ ግምት መውሰድ ይቻላል፡፡ በህግ ማውጣት ሂደቱ ውስጥ ተወካዮች ከስራ አስፈፃሚው የሚመነጨውን ረቂቅ አዋጅ ቴክኒካልና ቀላል ለውጦች በማድረግ አዋጁን መልክ ከማስያዝ (በግልጽ አማርኛ ከቀለም ቀቢነት) ያለፈ ሚና የላቸውም፡፡ ይህ መሆኑ የተወካዮች ምክር ቤትን ሚና የሚያሳንስ ወይም እንደ ድክመት የሚቆጥር ሳይሆን የራሱ የውክልና ዲሞክራዊ መገለጫና ነፀብራቅ ተደርጐ መወሰድ ይኖርበታል፡፡ የህዝብ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት አባላት ‘ህግ አጽዳቂዎች’ እንጂ ህግ አውጪዎች አይደሉም፡፡ ቀዳሚው ህገ መንግስታዊ ሚናቸው ስራ አስፈፃሚውን በመከታተልና በመቆጣጠር የመንግስት ተጠያቂነትን በተግባር ማረጋገጥ ነው፡፡

መሰረታዊ የመንግስት አስተዳደር መርሆዎች


መልካም አስተዳደር ምንም እንኳን በጥቅሉ ሲታይ ፖለቲካዊ፤ ኢኮኖሚያዊና ተቋማዊ እንዲሁም የአመራር እና የአሰራር ሂደቶችን የሚመለከቱ ዘርፈ ብዙ እንደምታዎች ያሉት ቢሆንም በህግ ማዕቀፍ ውስጥ ሲታይ ግን ከአስተዳደር ፍትህ ጋር አቻ ሆኖ ሊገለጽ ይችላል፡፡ መልካም አስተዳደር ዋና ግቡ ዜጐች ብቁና ውጤታማ አገልግሎት እንዲያገኙ ማስቻል እንዲሁም የሚደርስባቸውን አስተዳደራዊ በደል መቅረፍ እና አስተዳደራዊ ፍትህን እውን ማድረግ እንደመሆኑ ሁለቱን ነጣጥሎ ማየት ያስቸግራል፡፡ መልካም አስተዳደር ሆነ የአስተዳደር ህግ በራሳቸው አቅጣጫና ሂደት ተጉዘው የግባቸው መድረሻ አስተዳደራዊ ፍትህን ማስፈን ነው፡፡ ስለሆነም በይዘቱ ሰፊ በሆነ የመልካም አስተዳደር እሳቤ ውስጥ የአስተዳደር ህግ አንድ ቁስ ሆኖ በማገልገል የተቆራኘና የተዛመደ ተግባራዊ እገዛ ያደርጋል፡፡በመልካም አስተዳደርና በአስተዳደር ህግ መካከል ያለውን ተዛምዶ በቅጡ ለመቃኘት ህግ በአስተዳደሩ አካሄድ (Administrative behavior) ወይም በስራ አስፈፃሚው እንቅስቃሴ ላይ ምን አይነት አዎንታዊ ለውጥ ሊያመጣ ይችላል? ለሚለው ጥያቄ በተግባር የታገዘ ጥልቅ ጥናት ምላሽ መስጠት ይጠይቃል፡፡ ይሁን እንጂ በአንድ ህብረተሰብ ውስጥ ያሉትን ሚናዎችና ተግባራት ቢያንስ እንደጠቅላላ ሀሳብ በመውሰድ የአስተዳደር ህግ እንደ አንድ የህግ ዘርፍ የራሱ አዎንታዊ ፋይዳ እንዳለው መደምደም እንችላለን፡፡ ያም ሆኖ ግን አስተዳደሩ መልካም እንዲሆን የአስተዳደር ህግ ስልጣን ከመቆጣጠር ባሻገር እንዴት ተቃኝቶ መቀረጽ አለበት? የሚለው ጥያቄ ለአስተዳደር ህግ አጥኚዎች ሆነ ምሁራን የውይይት ምንጭ ብቻ ሳይሆን የጥናት መሰረት መሆን ያለበት ጉዳይ ነው፡፡የመልካም አስተዳደር እና የአስተዳደር ህግን ተዛምዶ ለማየት የሁለቱም መድረሻ ከሆነው የአስተዳደር ፍትህ ትርጓሜ እንነሳለን፡፡ የአስተዳደር ፍትህ በህግ ስልጣን የተሰጣቸው የመንግስት አካላት ስልጣናቸውን በሚገለገሉበት ወቅት ከዜጐች መብትና ነፃነት አንጻር ፍትሃዊ መሆን እንዳለባቸው የሚደነግግ መርህ ነው፡፡ የመንግስት አስተዳደር ፍትሃዊ ሲሆን መልካም ይሆናል፡፡የአስተዳደር ፍትህን በማሳካት ረገድ ሁለት ዓበይት ነጥቦች ቁልፍ ቦታ ይኖራቸዋል፡፡ ይኸውም፡-አንደኛ፦ የመንግስት ባለ ስልጣናት ወይም የአስተዳደር መስሪያ ቤቶች ስልጣናቸውን በሚገለገሉበት ወቅት አነስተኛ ለሆኑ የስነ-ስርዓት ደንቦች እና ተቀባይነት ላላቸው መርሆዎች መገዛት አለባቸው፡፡ ከአነስተኛ የስነ-ስርዓት ደንቦች በተጨማሪ የመንግስት አስተዳደር ተቀባይነት ባላቸው የህግ፣ የአስተዳደርና የፍትህ መርሆዎች መመራት አለበት፡፡ከእነዚህ መካከል በዋናነት የሚከተሉት ይጠቀሳሉ፡፡የህጋዊነት መርህ (ህጋዊ ስልጣን ሳይኖር አንዳችም እርምጃ አለመውሰድ፤ በህጉ መሰረት መወሰን)የሚዛናዊት መርህ (የአስተዳደር አካላት ውሳኔ ወይም እርምጃ እንደየሁኔታው ብዙ ነገሮች ግምት ያስገባ እንጂ ፍርደገምድል መሆን የለበትም፡፡)የተመጣጣኝነት መርህ (የሚወሰደው እርምጃ ተፈጸመ ከተባለው ጥፋት አንፃር ተመጣጣኝ መሆን አለበት፡፡)የእኩልነት መርህ (ተመሳሳይ በሆኑ ሁኔታዎች ወይም ጉዳዮች አስተዳደሩ የተለያየ ውሳኔ ላይ መድረስ የለበትም፡፡ ተመሳሳይ ሁኔታዎች በተመሳሳይ መንገድ መወሰን አለባቸው፡፡)ለውሳኔ በቂ ምክንያት መስጠት (አስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔ የተወሰደበት ምክንያት በግልጽ መጠቀስ አለበት፡፡ ውሳኔውም ፈጽሞ የማያሳምንና ኢ- ምክንያታዊ መሆን የለበትም፡፡)ሁለተኛ፦ ከላይ የተመለከቱትን ደንቦችና መርሆዎች በመጻረር በህግ ከተወሰነው ስልጣን በላይ እርምጃ ከተወሰደ መብታቸው የተጐዳ ዜጐች አቤቱታ አቅርበው ፍትህ (መፍትሄ) የሚያገኙበት መንገድ መኖር አለበት፡፡ በአስተዳደር አካላት መብታቸው የተጣሰ ሰዎች ቀላል በሆነ ስነ-ስርዓት አቤቱታ አቅርበው ቀልጣፋ መፍትሔ የሚያገኙበት አሰራር ወይም መንገድ ከሌለ የአስተዳደር ፍትህ አለ ለማለት አይቻልም፡፡ ለምሳሌ አካልን ነፃ የማውጣት መብት በህገ-ወጥ መንገድ ከ48 ሰዓት በላይ የታሰረ ሰው ራሱ በቀጥታ ወይም በሌላ ሶስተኛ ወገን በቀላሉ አቤቱታ አቅርቦ ነፃ የሚለቀቅበት ፈጣን ስነ-ስርዓት ነው፡፡ በተመሳሳይ መልኩ በህገ ወጥ መንገድ ንብረቱን በአስተዳደደሩ የተቀማ ወይም ፈቃዱ አለአግባብ የተሰረዘበት ሰው ቀላል በሆነ ስነ-ስርዓት መፍትሔ የሚያገኝበት የህግ ድንጋጌ ሊኖር ይገባል፡፡ ለዚህም ነው የአስተዳደር ህግ መኖር ለአስተዳደራዊ ፍትህ ሆነ ለመልካም አስተዳደር ወሳኝ መሳሪያ ነው የሚባለው፡፡ የአቤቱታው ስርዓት እንዳለ ሆኖ የአስተዳደራዊ ፍትህ የሚገኝበት ተቋም ገለልተኛ፣ ተደራሽ እና ነፃ ሆኖ ቀልጣፋና ውጤታማ ግልጋሎት መስጠት መቻሉ የአስተዳደር ፍትህን በማሳካት ረገድ ዋናውና መሰረታዊው ቅድመ ሁኔታ ነው፡፡

ተጠያቂነት ግልፅነት እና የህዝብ ተሳትፎ

ተጠያቂነት ግልፅነት እና የህዝብ ተሳትፎ የመልካም አስተዳደር ፅንስ ሃሳብ በቀጥታ ከሚጋራቸው የመንግስት አስተዳደር መርሆዎች መካከል ግልፅነት፣ ተጠያቂነት እና የሕዝብ ተሳትፎ ዋናዎቹ ናቸው፡፡ በእነዚህ መርሆዎች ላይ የተተከለ መልካም አስተዳደርን በአንድ አገር ውስጥ በተጨባጭ ለማስፈን ከህግ ማእቀፍ ውጭ የተቋማዊና የአሰራር ለውጦች መዘርጋትና መዳበር ሰፊውን ድርሻ እንደሚይዝ እሙን ነው፡፡ ሆኖም የህግ ሚናም መዘንጋት የለበትም፡፡ የአስተዳደር ህግ ግልፅነት፣ ተጠያቂነት እና የህዝብ ተሳትፎ በተግባር መፈፀማቸውን በማረጋገጥ ረገድ አንድ ቁልፍ መሳሪያ ነው፡፡ግልፅነት በጠቅላላው በመንግስትና በግለሰብ መካከል ያለውን ግልፅ የመረጃ ልውውጥ ያመለክታል፡፡ ዜጎች የመንግስት አሰራሮች፣ ዕቅዶች፣ ፖሊሲዎች፣ ስትራቴጂዎች፣ አዋጆች፣ ደንቦችና መመሪያዎችን በተመለከተ በቂ መረጃ ከሌላቸው የነቃ ተሳትፎ ማድረግ ይሳናቸዋል፡፡ የመንግስት ባለስልጣናትም ከተጠያቂነት ያመልጣሉ፡፡ የመንግስት ገበና ሳይታወቅ ተጠያቂነት አይታሰብም፡፡በህግ ማእቀፍ ውስጥ ስናወራ ግልፅነት የዜጎች መረጃ የማግኘት መብት ነው፡፡ የኢ.ፌ.ድ.ሪ ሕገ መንግስት የመንግስት አሰራር ለህዝብ ግልፅ በሆነ መንገድ መከናወን እንዳለበት በመርህ ደረጃ ይደነገጋል፡፡ ይህ ህገ- መንግስታዊ መርህ በተግባር የሚረጋገጠው ይህን የሚያስፈፅም ዝርዝር ህግ የወጣ እንደሆነ ነው’በአገራችን ዜጎች መረጃ እንዲያገኙ የሚያስችላቸው ስርዓት በ2002 ዓ.ም. በወጣው የመገናኛ ብዙሃንና የመረጃ ነፃነት አዋጅ ቁ. 590/2002 የህግ ማዕቀፍ ተበጅቶተለታል፡፡ በተግባር ሲታይ ግን የመንግስት አዋጆች፤ ደንቦችና መመሪያዎች፣ አሰራሮችና ውሳኔዎች ግልፅነት ጉዳይ የሀገሪቱን የህግ ስርዓት ጥላሸት ቀብቶታል፡፡ የህጎች ህትመት እና ስርጭቱ አሁንም ድረስ በጣም በመጨረሻው ደረጃ ላይ ይገኛል፡፡ ምንም እንኳን አዋጆችና ደንቦች ውጤት የሚኖራቸው በፌደራል ነጋሪት ጋዜጣ ታትመው ሲወጡ ቢሆንም በስርጭት ችግር የተነሳ ተደራሽ አይደሉም፡፡ግልፅነት ብቻውን ተነጥሎ የቆመ መርህ ሳይሆን ተጓዳኝ ከሆነው የሚስጥራዊነት ደንብ ጋር እየተመዘነ እና እየተመዛዘነ መለኪያ ሊበጅለት ይገባል፡፡ ግልፅነት ለመንግስት አሰራር እና ለህዝብ ጥቅም ወሳኝ እንደሆነ ሁሉ ከአገር ፀጥታና ደህንነት ብሎም ከዜጎች የግል መብት አንፃር የተወሰኑ መረጃዎች በሚስጥር እንዲጠበቁ ያስፈልጋል፡፡ በሚስጥር ሊጠበቁ የሚገባቸው መረጃዎች የመንግስት ባለስልጣናትና ሠራተኛው በኃላፊነቱ ደረጃ ለይቶ እንዲያዛቸው የሚያስችል ሚስጥራዊነታቸውን የመመደብና የመፈረጅ ዘዴና ስርዓት ሊኖር ይገባል፡፡የአስተዳደር ህግ የግልፅነት ብቻ ሳይሆን በህገመንግስቱ ላይ የተቀመጠውን የተጠያቂነት መርህ ማስፈጸሚያ መሳሪያ ጭምር ነው፡፡ ህጉ የአስተዳደር አካላትና ባለስልጣናት ለድርጊታቸው ተጠያቂ የሚሆኑበትን ስርዓት ከመዘርጋት ባሻገር ጠያቂ የሆኑ አካላትን በመለየት የተቀናጀ የስልጣን መቆጣጠሪያ ስልት ይቀይሳል፡፡ዴሞክራሲን እውነተኛ ከሚያደርጉት ነገሮች አንዱ ዜጎች በመንግስት አስተዳደር ውስጥ የነቃ ተሳትፎ ማድረጋቸው ነው፡፡ ህገ መንግስቱ ዜጎች የሚያስተዳድሯቸውን በመምረጥ ብቻ ሳይሆን በቀጥተኛ ዴሞክራሲያዊ ተሳትፎ ሉአላዊነታቸው እንደሚረጋገጥ ይደነገጋል፡፡a የሕዝብ ተሳትፎ በተወሰነ መልኩ አስገዳጅ በሆኑ ድንጋጌዎች በተግባር ሊተረጎም ይገባል፡፡ በተለይ በአስተዳደር መስሪያ ቤቶች የህግ ማውጣት ሂደት ውስጥ የአስተዳደር ህግ እና የሕዝብ ተሳትፎ ተነጣጥለው ሊታዩ አይችሉም፡፡ ውጤታማ የአስተዳደር ህግ ሲኖር በህገ መንግስቱ ላይ የተቀመጠው ‘ህዝብ በመንግስት አስተዳደር ውስጥ የመሳተፍ’ መብቱ በተጨባጭ ይረጋገጣል፡፡