የቁጥጥር ስልቶች


የቁጥጥር ስልቶች
ፓርላማ ስራ አስፈፃሚውንና በስሩ ያሉትን የአስተዳደር አካላት የሚቆጣጠርበትና የሚከታተልበት መንገድና ስርዓት የተለያየ መልክ ይይዛል፡፡ የኢ.ፌ.ዲ.ሪ ህገ-መንግስት የተለያዩ የቁጥጥር ስርዓቶችን ጠቅለል ባለ መልኩ ያስቀመጠ ሲሆን ዝርዝር አፈፃፀሙ በተለያዩ ህጎችና የተወካዮች ምክር ቤት የውስጥ ደንቦች ተደንግጎ ይገኛል፡፡
እስከ 1994 ዓ.ም ድረስ ምክር ቤቱ ህገ መንግስታዊ ሚናውን በህግ አውጪነት ብቻ ገድቦታል፡፡ ለመጀመሪያ ጊዜ በ1988 ዓ.ም ያወጣው የህግ አወጣጥ ስነ ስርዓት አዋጅ ቁጥር 14/1988 ሆነ ይህንኑ አዋጅ ያሻሻለው አዋጅ ቁ. 33/1988 የህግ አወጣጥን ብቻ ከሚመለከቱት ጥቂት ያልተብራሩ ድንጋጌዎች በስተቀር ስለ ቁጥጥር ስርዓት የሚሉት ነገር የላቸውም፡፡
አዋጅ ቁ. 14 እና ማሻሻያውን አዋጅ ቁ. 33/1998 ‘ን’ የሻረው የሕዝብ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት የህግ አወጣጥ ስነ-ስርዓት፣ የኮሚቴዎች አደረጃጀትና አሠራር አዋጅ ቁ. 271/1994 ምክር ቤቱ ለመጀመሪያ ጊዜ አስፈፃሚውን መቆጣጠር ህገ መንግስታዊ ሚናው መሆኑን የተረዳበት ተግባራዊ ጅማሮ ብሎ መውሰድ ይቻላል፡፡ በቀጣይ በ1997 ዓ.ም የወጣውና አዋጅ ቁ. 272/1994 ‘ን’ የተካው የተሻሻለው የኢ.ፌ.ዲ.ሪ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት የአሠራርና የስነ ምግባር አዋጅ ቁ. 470/1997 ምክር ቤቱ ስር አስፈፃሚውን የሚቆጣጠርበትን ስርዓት በዝርዝርና በተብራራ መልኩ በመደንገግ ምክር ቤት ህገ መንግስታዊ ግዴታውን እንዲወጣ ውጤታማ የህግ ማዕቀፍ ዘርግቷል፡፡ ይህ አዋጅ ከአንድ ዓመት ላልበለጠ ጊዜ ስራ ላይ ሳይቆይ በአዋጅ ቁ. 503/1998 ሙሉ በሙሉ ተሸሯል፡፡ በአዋጁ መግቢያ ላይ እንደተመለከተው ምክር ቤቱ የህግ አወጣጡንና አሰራሩን በራሱ ደንብ መወሰን አስፈላጊ ሆኖ ስላገኘው አዋጁን መሻር አስፈልጓል፡፡
በዚሁ መሰረት አሰራሩንና የህግ አወጣጥ ስርዓቱን በራሱ ውስጠ ደንብ የተካው ሲሆን ከ2008 ዓ.ም. ጀምሮ ተፈጻሚነት ያገኘውና ተሻሽሎ የወጣው የአሰራርና የአባላት የሥነ-ምግባር ደንብ ቁ. 6/2008 በቁጥጥር ስርዓቱ ላይ አዳዲስ አካሄዶችን በማካተት ለተግባራዊ የቁጥጥር ስርዓት መኖር አመቺ ሁኔታ ፈጥሯል፡፡
የህዝብ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት ስራ አስፈፃሚውን የመቆጣጠር ስልጣኑ ከህግ መንግስቱ አንቀጽ 55 /7/፣ /11/፣ /13/፣/17/ እና /18/ እና 77/2/ ይመነጫል፡፡ የስራ አስፈፃሚውን የተጠያቂነት መርህ የሚወስነው የህገ መንግስቱ አንቀጽ 77/2/ ጠቅላይ ሚኒስትሩና የሚኒስትሮች ምክር ቤት ለህዝብ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት ተጠሪ እንደሆኑ ይደነግጋል፡፡ የተጠሪነት መርህ ስራ አስፈፃሚው ለድርጊቱ፣ ውሳኔውና እርምጃው ፖለቲካዊ ተገቢነትና ህገ መንግስታዊነት ለህግ አውጭው መግለጫና ማብራሪያ እንዲሰጥና ለውድቀቶቹ ኃላፊነት እንዲሸከም ያስገድዳል፡፡ ይህንን በሚያጠናክር መልኩ የአንቀጽ 55/17/ ድንጋጌ የተወካዮች ምክር ቤት ጠቅላይ ሚኒስትሩንና ሌሎች የፌደራል መንግስት ባለስልጣናት ለጥያቄ የመጥራትና የህግ አስፈፃሚውን አካል አሰራር የመመርመር ስልጣን አጎናጽፎታል፡፡
በአንቀጽ 55/7/ ላይ የተመለከተው የመከላከያ፣ የፀጥታ ኃይሎችና የፖሊስ አደረጃጀት የመወሰን እንዲሁም ሰብዓዊ መብት የመጣስ ተግባራት ሲፈጸሙ አጣርቶ እርምጃ የመውሰድ ስልጣን በእርግጥ በተግባር ስራ ላይ ከዋለ የዜጎችን ህገ መንግስታዊ መብት ውጤታማ በሆነ መንገድ ያስጠብቃል፡፡ በዚሁ አንቀጽ ንዑስ አንቀጽ 11 እና 13 የተመለከቱት በጀት የማጽደቅ እንዲሁም የዳኞችና የከፍተኛ ባለስልጣናትን ሹመት የማጽደቅ ስልጣን ቀጥተኛ የስልጣን መቆጣጠሪያ መንገድ ባይሆንም ከሌሎች የቁጥጥርና የክትትል መንገዶች ጋር ተዳምሮ ህግ አውጭው በተግባር ሊጠቀምበት የሚችል ውጤታማ የስልጣን መቆጣጠሪያ ስልት ነው፡፡
የቁጥጥር ስልቶች
ፓርላማ ስራ አስፈፃሚውንና በስሩ ያሉትን የአስተዳደር አካላት የሚቆጣጠርበትና የሚከታተልበት መንገድና ስርዓት የተለያየ መልክ ይይዛል፡፡ የኢ.ፌ.ዲ.ሪ ህገ-መንግስት የተለያዩ የቁጥጥር ስርዓቶችን ጠቅለል ባለ መልኩ ያስቀመጠ ሲሆን ዝርዝር አፈፃፀሙ በተለያዩ ህጎችና የተወካዮች ምክር ቤት የውስጥ ደንቦች ተደንግጎ ይገኛል፡፡
እስከ 1994 ዓ.ም ድረስ ምክር ቤቱ ህገ መንግስታዊ ሚናውን በህግ አውጪነት ብቻ ገድቦታል፡፡ ለመጀመሪያ ጊዜ በ1988 ዓ.ም ያወጣው የህግ አወጣጥ ስነ ስርዓት አዋጅ ቁጥር 14/1988 ሆነ ይህንኑ አዋጅ ያሻሻለው አዋጅ ቁ. 33/1988 የህግ አወጣጥን ብቻ ከሚመለከቱት ጥቂት ያልተብራሩ ድንጋጌዎች በስተቀር ስለ ቁጥጥር ስርዓት የሚሉት ነገር የላቸውም፡፡
አዋጅ ቁ. 14 እና ማሻሻያውን አዋጅ ቁ. 33/1998 ‘ን’ የሻረው የሕዝብ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት የህግ አወጣጥ ስነ-ስርዓት፣ የኮሚቴዎች አደረጃጀትና አሠራር አዋጅ ቁ. 271/1994 ምክር ቤቱ ለመጀመሪያ ጊዜ አስፈፃሚውን መቆጣጠር ህገ መንግስታዊ ሚናው መሆኑን የተረዳበት ተግባራዊ ጅማሮ ብሎ መውሰድ ይቻላል፡፡ በቀጣይ በ1997 ዓ.ም የወጣውና አዋጅ ቁ. 272/1994 ‘ን’ የተካው የተሻሻለው የኢ.ፌ.ዲ.ሪ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት የአሠራርና የስነ ምግባር አዋጅ ቁ. 470/1997 ምክር ቤቱ ስር አስፈፃሚውን የሚቆጣጠርበትን ስርዓት በዝርዝርና በተብራራ መልኩ በመደንገግ ምክር ቤት ህገ መንግስታዊ ግዴታውን እንዲወጣ ውጤታማ የህግ ማዕቀፍ ዘርግቷል፡፡ ይህ አዋጅ ከአንድ ዓመት ላልበለጠ ጊዜ ስራ ላይ ሳይቆይ በአዋጅ ቁ. 503/1998 ሙሉ በሙሉ ተሸሯል፡፡ በአዋጁ መግቢያ ላይ እንደተመለከተው ምክር ቤቱ የህግ አወጣጡንና አሰራሩን በራሱ ደንብ መወሰን አስፈላጊ ሆኖ ስላገኘው አዋጁን መሻር አስፈልጓል፡፡
በዚሁ መሰረት አሰራሩንና የህግ አወጣጥ ስርዓቱን በራሱ ውስጠ ደንብ የተካው ሲሆን ከ2008 ዓ.ም. ጀምሮ ተፈጻሚነት ያገኘውና ተሻሽሎ የወጣው የአሰራርና የአባላት የሥነ-ምግባር ደንብ ቁ. 6/2008 በቁጥጥር ስርዓቱ ላይ አዳዲስ አካሄዶችን በማካተት ለተግባራዊ የቁጥጥር ስርዓት መኖር አመቺ ሁኔታ ፈጥሯል፡፡
የህዝብ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት ስራ አስፈፃሚውን የመቆጣጠር ስልጣኑ ከህግ መንግስቱ አንቀጽ 55 /7/፣ /11/፣ /13/፣/17/ እና /18/ እና 77/2/ ይመነጫል፡፡ የስራ አስፈፃሚውን የተጠያቂነት መርህ የሚወስነው የህገ መንግስቱ አንቀጽ 77/2/ ጠቅላይ ሚኒስትሩና የሚኒስትሮች ምክር ቤት ለህዝብ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት ተጠሪ እንደሆኑ ይደነግጋል፡፡ የተጠሪነት መርህ ስራ አስፈፃሚው ለድርጊቱ፣ ውሳኔውና እርምጃው ፖለቲካዊ ተገቢነትና ህገ መንግስታዊነት ለህግ አውጭው መግለጫና ማብራሪያ እንዲሰጥና ለውድቀቶቹ ኃላፊነት እንዲሸከም ያስገድዳል፡፡ ይህንን በሚያጠናክር መልኩ የአንቀጽ 55/17/ ድንጋጌ የተወካዮች ምክር ቤት ጠቅላይ ሚኒስትሩንና ሌሎች የፌደራል መንግስት ባለስልጣናት ለጥያቄ የመጥራትና የህግ አስፈፃሚውን አካል አሰራር የመመርመር ስልጣን አጎናጽፎታል፡፡
በአንቀጽ 55/7/ ላይ የተመለከተው የመከላከያ፣ የፀጥታ ኃይሎችና የፖሊስ አደረጃጀት የመወሰን እንዲሁም ሰብዓዊ መብት የመጣስ ተግባራት ሲፈጸሙ አጣርቶ እርምጃ የመውሰድ ስልጣን በእርግጥ በተግባር ስራ ላይ ከዋለ የዜጎችን ህገ መንግስታዊ መብት ውጤታማ በሆነ መንገድ ያስጠብቃል፡፡ በዚሁ አንቀጽ ንዑስ አንቀጽ 11 እና 13 የተመለከቱት በጀት የማጽደቅ እንዲሁም የዳኞችና የከፍተኛ ባለስልጣናትን ሹመት የማጽደቅ ስልጣን ቀጥተኛ የስልጣን መቆጣጠሪያ መንገድ ባይሆንም ከሌሎች የቁጥጥርና የክትትል መንገዶች ጋር ተዳምሮ ህግ አውጭው በተግባር ሊጠቀምበት የሚችል ውጤታማ የስልጣን መቆጣጠሪያ ስልት ነው፡፡

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