The implementation of the concept in our country, in our country,

The implementation of the concept in our country, in our country,

Before discussing the jurisdiction of the courts in our country, it is necessary to first make a few points on the content and implementation of the concept. In order to have a clear picture of the place, current situation and future directions of our country’s legal and constitutional system, we must begin by giving a national definition of the concept. What is an Inquiry? Except in the United Kingdom, the United States, France, or any other country, the answer is no. This results from two things. the first; Administrative law is a reflection of a country’s public administration, political and constitutional system and history more than other domestic laws. As a result, the principles and concepts of the Inquisition and other administrative laws differ significantly from country to country.

The second point that accompanies this idea is that any interpretation presented to an inquiry judge provides a partial answer to the basic themes of the concept and its application. Therefore, if we try to copy the divorce from England or France and apply it in our country on loan or in the name of experience, it will be ‘cow dung’. There is no clear picture of the nature and performance of the Inquisition in Ethiopia, and there are only a handful of cases that have been presented to the courts. This caused the concept to be inconsistent.

If we start from the beginning, the question is, is there an inquisitive judiciary in Ethiopia? There is no definite answer to this question. If given, it will not be valid. It is possible to unravel the complexity of the question, break it down into sub-questions, and come up with a concise conclusion. In this way, its existence is based on fact. Here are some questions to be answered. Do our courts have jurisdiction to review and correct the actions of the administration? If so, what is the legal and constitutional basis for their authority? What are the issues that can be considered by the Inquiry? In other words, what administrative functions can the courts investigate? What grounds of judicial review can administrative actions be considered in court? When a client asks for an appeal to be heard by an investigator, what is the procedure that goes from questioning to ‘hearing and decision making’? What decisions can the courts make when an appeal is made to an inquiry? That is, what can the party who has been harmed by the administrative action find in the court? If there is an inquiry in Ethiopia, all the above questions need to be answered. Sometimes there are answers to some questions, but for others it is difficult to find answers. The final conclusion in answering these questions is that judicial activism, even if it is not judicial activism, requires courage to be fully implemented in Ethiopia. Judges, on the one hand, must stand up for the rights and freedoms of individuals and, on the other hand, refrain from interfering in the work of the executive. Although the concept and scope of the Inquisition in general, and its structure in Ethiopia in particular, will be explored in subsequent chapters, one key and fundamental point should always be kept in mind.

Namely: Administrative law in Ethiopia is not yet independent of the constitution and civil law. The legitimacy of the administration’s actions is not determined by an independent administrative law or a judicial inquiry system. There is no separate administrative justice system (civil and criminal justice system) that holds the administration accountable for its actions, except for a limited number of cases that the legislature allows to appeal.

የአስተዳደር ውሳኔ ምንድነው?

አስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔ ምንድነው?

‘አስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔ’ በአስተዳር ህግ ውስጥ ከቃል አጠቃቀም፣ ከይዘትና ከወሰን አንጻር ቁርጥ ያለ መደብ ከሌላቸው ፅንሰ ሀሳቦች መካከል ጎልቶ ይወጣል፡፡ ውስብስብነቱ ከፅንሰ ሀሳቡ ወካይ ስያሜ ይጀምራል፡፡ ‘አስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔ’ በሚል እዚህ ላይ መጠቀሱም በአገራችን የአስተዳደር ህግ ውስጥ መደበኛ መጠሪያው ቢሆን ይበጃል በሚል ብቻ ነው፡፡ ጀርመኖች እንኳን የራሳቸውን ወካይ ቃል መፍጠር ተስኗቸው አሁን ላይ በአስተዳደር ህጋቸው ዐቢይ ስፍራ ይዞ የሚገኘውን ‘Administrative act’ (Verwaltungsakt) በሚል የሚጠሩትን ፅንሰ ሀሳብ ለማዳበር ከፈረንሳዮች acte administrative ለመዋስ ተገደዋል፡፡

‘Administrative act’ (Verwaltungsakt) is a core concept of the German administrative law. It covers most of the actions of the administrative authorities through which they affect the legal interests of an individual. The origin of this concept is traced from the French concept of acte administratif from which it was borrowed by the German jurists and developed into a German concept since 1826 onwards.a

በእንግሊዝኛው ፍቺ ከወሰድነው Administrative Decision በይዘቱ Administrative Act ውስጥ የሚጠቃለል ሲሆን ዘርፈ ብዙ መልክ ካላቸው አስተዳደራዊ ተግባራት መካከል አንድ ነጠላ ተግባርን ብቻ ይወክላል፡፡ ሆኖም ለአገራችን የአስተዳደር ህግ ‘አስተዳደራዊ ተግባር’ ወይም ‘አስተዳደራዊ ድርጊት’ የሚለውን ቃል ብንጠቀም ገላጭነቱ አይጎላም፡፡ ከዚህ በተጨማሪ አስተዳደራዊ ድንጋጌ ማውጣት እንዲሁም ምርመራ፣ ቁጥጥርና ክትትል ሁሉም የአስተዳደር ተግባራት እንደመሆናቸው ዳኝነታዊ ባህርይ ያላቸውን ተግባራት ለይቶ ለማመልከት ውስን ይዘት ያለውን ቃል መጠቀም ያስፈልጋል፡፡ ከዚህ አንጻር በዚህ መጽሐፍ ውስጥ ‘የአስተዳደር ውሳኔ’ ወይም ‘አስተዳደራዊ’ ውሳኔ የሚለው ቃል ዳኝነታዊ ባህርይ ያላቸውን ተግባራት ለመግለጽ ጥቅም ላይ ውሏል፡፡ ሆኖም በመደበኛ ትርጓሜው አደናጋሪ መልዕክት ስለሚፈጥር ይዘቱንና ፍቺውን በቅድሚያ መወሰን ያስፈልጋል፡፡

እ.ኤ.አ. በ1976 ዓ.ም. በወጣው የጀርመን የአስተዳደር ስነ ስርዓት ህግ የአስተዳደር ተግባር (Administrative act) የሚከተለው ፍቺ ተሰጥቶታል፡፡

Administrative act is every order, decision or other sovereign measure taken by an authority for the regulation of a particular case in the sphere of public law and directed at immediate external legal consequences.b

ወደ አማርኛ ስንመልሰው፤

የአስተዳደር ተግባር ማለት ቅርብና ውጫዊ የህግ ውጤት የሚያስከትል በህዝብ አስተዳደር ህግ ማዕቀፍ ውስጥ አንድን ልዩ ሁኔታ ለመቆጣጠር ሲባል ስልጣን ያለው አካል የሚሰጠው ትዕዛዝ፣ ውሳኔ ወይም ሌላ ማናቸውም ሌላ ሉዓላዊ እርምጃ ነው፡፡

በትርጓሜው ውስጥ ተጨማሪ ሰፊ ማብራሪያ የሚሹ ንዑስ ሀሳቦች ታጭቀዋል፡፡ ሆኖም በአጭሩ ለማስቀመጥ ያህል በጀርመን የአስተዳደር ህግ የአስተዳደር ተግባር ማለት ህግ ለማስፈጸምና የአስተዳደር ስራ ለማከናወን ስልጣን የተሰጣቸው ተቋማት ይህን ህዝባዊ ስልጣናቸውን (public functions) በመገልገል የሚሰጡትን ትዕዛዝ፣ ውሳኔ ወይም ማናቸውም በማድረግ፣ ባለማድረግ የሚገለጽ እርምጃ ሁሉ ያጠቃልላል፡፡ ይህም ማለት በውል ወይም ከውል ውጪ ኃላፊነት ህጎች ስር የሚሸፈኑ ግላዊ ድርጊቶች፣ ውሳኔዎች፣ እርምጃዎች ወዘተ…በአስተዳደር ተግባር ስር አይሸፈኑም፡፡

በትርጓሜው ላይ ‘ልዩ ሁኔታ ለመቆጣጠር’ ሲባል ተግባሩ ህጋዊ ውጤት እንደሚያስከትል ወሰኑም በአንድ ልዩ ሁኔታ ላይ ያነጣጠረ እንጂ ጠቅላላ ተፈጻሚነት እንደሌለው ያመለክታል፡፡ ስለሆነም የበታች ሠራተኛ ለበላይ ኃላፊ የሚያቀርበው የውሳኔ ሀሳብ፣ ሪፖርት ወይም የምርመራ ውጤት ራሱን ችሎ ህጋዊ ውጤት የማይከተለው በመሆኑ እንደ አስተዳደራዊ ተግባር አይቆጠርም፡፡ በአንድ ዘርፍ በተሰማሩ ነጋዴዎች ላይ የተወሰደ እርምጃ (ለምሳሌ ስጋ ሻጮች ማሟላት ያለባቸው የጥራት ደረጃ) ከላይ በተቀመጠው ትርጓሜ ውስጥ አይወድቅም፡፡ ምክንያቱም ተፈጻሚነቱ ሁሉንም የዘርፍ ነጋዴዎች ስለሚያቅፍ ጠቅላላነት ይታይበታል፡፡ በመጨረሻም ህጋዊ ውጤቱ በአስተዳደሩ ውስጣዊ መዋቅር ተወስኖ የሚቀር (ለምሳሌ በአንድ ነጋዴ ላይ እርምጃ እንዲወሰድ የበላይ ኃላፊው ለበታች ሠራተኛ የሚያስተላልፈው ማሳሰቢያ) ከሆነ በአስተዳደራዊ ተግባር ውስጥ አይመደብም፡፡

የአሜሪካው የፌደራል አስተዳር ስነ ስርዓት ህግ ተፈጻሚነቱ አስተዳደራዊ ድንጋጌ የማውጣት (rule making) እና አስተዳደራዊ ዳኝነት (adjudication) የመስጠት ሂደቶች ላይ ነው፡፡ በህጉ ላይ በተሰጠው ፍቺ አስተዳደራዊ ዳኝነት ማለት በውጤቱ ‘ትዕዛዝ’ የሚያቋቁም የአስተዳደር ሂደት (agency process for the formulation of an order) ነው፡፡ ትዕዛዝ የሚለው ቃል በአስተዳደር ስነ ስርዓት ህጉ ላይ ፍቺ የተሰጠው ሲሆን ይዘቱ እንደሚከተለው ይነበባል፡፡

order means the whole or a part of a final disposition, whether affirmative, negative, injunctive, or declaratory in form, of an agency in a matter other than rule making but including licensing.c

‘ትዕዛዝ’ ከጀርመኑ ‘የአስተዳደር ተግባር’ ጋር ሲነጻጸር መሰረታዊ ልዩነት አይታይበትም፡፡ ጉዳዩን የሚቋጭ የመጨረሻ መሆኑ ህጋዊ ውጤት እንደሚከተለው ይጠቁመናል፡፡ በይዘቱ አንድ ድርጊት እንዳይፈጸም፣ እንዲፈጸም ወይም የአንድ ሁኔታ (መብት) መኖር/አለመኖር የሚያረጋግጥ መግለጫ ወይም ከአስተዳደራዊ ድንጋጌ ማውጣት ውጪ ያለ ማንኛውም የመጨረሻ እልባት የሚሰጥ ነው፡፡

በመቀጠል የአገራችን የፌደራል ረቂቅ የአስተዳደር ስነ ስርዓት ህግ (1993) የተጠቀመውን ቃል እና አፈታቱን እናያለን፡፡ በረቂቅ አዋጁ የትርጓሜ ክፍል አንቀጽ 2 /2/ እንደተመለከተው አስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔ ማለት፤

ማናቸውም አስተዳደራዊ ባህርይ ያለውን ተግባር ወይም ነገር ከመፈጸም ጋር የተያያዘ ውሳኔ ወይም ውሳኔ አለመስጠትን ጨምሮ ቅጣትን ለመጣል፣ ወይም መፍትሔ ለመስጠት ወይም የመከላከል ዓላማ ወይም ውጤት ያለው በአስተዳደር ተቋማት የሚሰጥ ማናቸውም ውሳኔ፣ ትዕዛዝ ወይም ብይን [ነው፡፡]

የትርጓሜውን ይዘት ይበልጥ ለመረዳት የእንግሊዝኛውን ቅጂ መመልከቱ ጠቃሚ ነው፡፡

Administrative Decision means any decision, order or award of an agency having as its object or effect the imposition of a sanction or the grant or refusal of relief, including a decision relating to doing or refusing to do any other act or thing of an administrative nature, or failure to take a decision

በቀጣይ በ2001 ዓ.ም. በተዘጋጀው ረቂቅ የአስተዳደር ስነ ስርዓት ህግ አዋጅ አርቃቂዎቹ የተለየ አገላለጽ መጠቀም መርጠዋል፡፡ በረቂቁ አንቀጽ 2/2/ ላይ አስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔ እንደሚከተለው ተተርጉሟል፡፡

አስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔ ማለት ተጨባጭ ሕጋዊ ግንኙነቶችን ለመመስረት፣ ለማሻሻል፣ በምርመራ ለማረጋገጥ ወይም የተሟላ ለማድረግ ለአንድ ጉዳይ የተወሰነ መፍትሔ የመስጠት ዓላማ ያለውና በግለሰብ ወይም በተወሰኑ ሰዎች ላይ ተፈጻሚነት ያለው በተቋሙ የሚሰጥ ሕጋዊ ውሳኔ ሲሆን፣ አስተዳደራዊ ባህርይ ባለው ተግባር ወይም ጉዳይ ላይ ውሳኔ አለመስጠትንም ይጨምራል፡፡

በሁለቱም ረቂቆች ላይ የሚታየው ገላጭነት የጎደለው የቋንቋ አጠቃቀም አብዛኛው ሰው በቀላሉ አይረዳውም፡፡ ከዚህም አልፎ የህግ ባለሞያዎች፣ ዳኞች እና አስተዳዳሪዎች በጋራ የሚያግባባ አገላለጽ አልያዘም፡፡ ለምሳሌ በተለምዶ ሰርኩላር በሚል ስያሜ ጠቅላላ ተፈጻሚነት ኖሯቸው የሚተላፉ ትዕዛዞች የአስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔና የአስተዳደራዊ ድንጋጌ ከፊል ባህርያት ይጋራሉ፡፡ ሆኖም በአንደኛው ስር ለመፈረጅ ሁለቱም ትርጓሜዎች ግልጽ መለያ መስፈርት አላካተቱም፡፡ ለአስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔ ትርጓሜ ለማበጀት ጥሩ መነሻ የሚሆነው የፍርድ ቤት ውሳኔ ነው፡፡ ሁለቱን የሚያመሳስላቸው ብዙ ነጥቦች አሉ፡፡ አስተዳደራዊ ሆነ የፍርድ ቤት ውሳኔ ሁለቱም ምንጫቸው ዳኝነታዊ ስልጣን ነው፡፡ በዳኝነት ፍሬ ነገሩን የማረጋገጥና በተረጋገጠው ፍሬ ነገር ላይ ህጉን ተፈጻሚ የማድረግ ተግባራት ይከናወናሉ፡፡ ዓላማው አከራካሪ የሆነ አንድ ተለይቶ የታወቀ ጉዳይ (particular case) መቋጨት ነው፡፡ ጉዳዩን በመቋጨት የሚነገረው ትዕዛዝ፣ ብይን ወይም ውሳኔ በባለጉዳዮች ወይም ሶስተኛ ወገኖች ላይ ህጋዊ ውጤት ያስከትላል፡፡ እነዚህ ወሳኝ ባህርያት በጀርመኑ እና የአሜሪካው የአስተዳደር ህጎች ላይ በግልጽ ተለይተዋል፡፡

በአንድ የአስተዳደር መ/ቤት የተፈጸመ ተግባር የአስተዳደር ውሳኔ ነው ወይስ አይደለም? የሚለው ጥያቄ በአስተዳደር ህግ ውስጥ መሰረታዊ ከሚባሉት ውስጥ አንዱ ነው፡፡ ጥያቄው ተቋሙ ካሉት ጠቅላላ የማስተዳደር (ህግ ማስፈጸም)፣ ከፊል የህግ አውጭነት እና ከፊል የዳኝነት ስልጣናት መካከል የትኛውን እየተገለገለ እንደሆነ የሚለይበት ነው፡፡ የጥያቄው ሌላ መልክ ሲታይ ተቋሙ የፈጸመው ተግባር በባህርዩ ዳኝነታዊ ነው ወይስ አይደለም? የሚለውን ጥያቄ ይመልሳል፡፡ የውሳኔ ሰጭውን የስልጣን እና የተግባር ዓይነት መለየት በህጉ የአፈጻጸም ወሰን ላይ የራሱ ጉልህ እንደምታዎች አሉት፡፡ ጠቅለል ባለ አነጋገር የአስተዳደር መ/ቤቶች ዳኝነታዊ ወይም የህግ አውጭነት ስልጣናቸውን በሚገለገሉበት ጊዜ ካልሆነ በስተቀር ሙሉ በሙሉ በአስተዳደር ስልጣን ውስጥ የሚወድቁት ድርጊቶች በመደበኛ ፍ/ቤቶች ቁጥጥር ሊደረግባቸው አይችልም፡፡ በሌላ አነጋገር አስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔ ወይም ድንጋጌ ባልሆነ ጉዳይ ላይ የአጣሪ ዳኝነት ስልጣን አይኖራቸውም፡፡ የአስተዳደር መ/ቤቶች ዳኝነታዊ ስልጣናቸውን ተጠቅመው አስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔ ሲሰጡ መሰረታዊ የውሳኔ አሰጣጥ መርሆዎች ተፈጻሚ መሆን ይጀምራሉ፡፡

ባህርያትና የስልጣን ምንጭ፣

⚖️ ባህርያትና የስልጣን ምንጭ   

አስተዳደራዊ ድንጋጌ ማለት ከህግ አውጭው በተሰጠ የውክልና ስልጣን ገደብ ውስጥ በስራ አስፈፃሚውና የአስተዳደር መ/ቤቶች የሚወጣ የበታች ህግ (subordinate legislation) ነው፡፡ በውክልና ህግ ማውጣት የአስተዳደር ህግ አይነተኛ መገለጫ ነው፡፡ የስራ አስፈፃሚው አካል ህግ የማውጣት ስልጣን ከጊዜ ወደ ጊዜ እያደገ መምጣት የነፃ ገበያ ክስተትን ተከትሎ የመጣው ዘመናው የማህበራዊ ደህንነት መንግስት (welfare state) ካስመዘገባቸው እድገቶች መካከል በቀዳሚነት ይጠቀሳል፡፡

በውክልና ህግ ለማውጣት ዋናው የስልጣን ምንጭ ህግ አውጭው እንደመሆኑ የተወካዮች ም/ቤት በማያወላውልና ግልጽ በሆነ መልኩ ስልጣኑን በከፊል ቆርሶ ለሚኒስትሮች ም/ቤት ወይም ለአስተዳደር መ/ቤቶች ካልሰጠ እነዚህ አካላት ከህገ መንግስት የመነጨ የህግ አውጭነት ስልጣን የላቸውም፡፡ የኢ.ፌ.ዲ.ሪ ህገ መንግስት የሚኒስትሮች ም/ቤት ሆነ የአስተዳደር መ/ቤቶች ደንብና መመሪያ እንዲያወጡ በቀጥታ ሆነ በተዘዋዋሪ ስልጣን አይሰጣቸውም፡፡ በፌደራል ደረጃ ህግ የማውጣት ስልጣን የተወካዮች ም/ቤት ሲሆን በክልል ደረጃ ደግሞ የክልሉ ምክር ቤት ነው፡፡ ከዚህ ውጭ ህግ የማውጣት ስልጣን የተሰጠው አካል በህገ-መንግስቱ ላይ የለም፡፡

የውክልና ስልጣን በሌለበት ሁኔታ የሚወጣ ማንኛውም ደንብ ሆነ መመሪያ ከስልጣን በላይ እንደመሆኑ የህጋዊነት መስፈርትን አያሟላም፡፡ በእርግጥ የአስቸኳይ ጊዜ አዋጅ በፓርላማው ፀድቆ ከታወጀ የሚኒስትሮች ም/ቤት ውስን ለሆነ ጊዜ ሲቪል እና ፖለቲካዊ መብቶችን ደንብ በማውጣት ሊገድብ ይችላል፡፡ ከዚህ ውጭ የሚኒስትሮች ም/ቤት በቀጥታ ደንብ ለማውጣት የሚችልበት ህገ መንግስታዊ ስልጣን የለውም፡፡

የስልጣኑ ምንጩ የተወካዮች ም/ቤት ብቻ ነው ከተባለ ይህ አካል ስልጣኑን በከፊል ቆርሶ በውክልና ማስተላለፍ ይችላል? የሚለውን ጥያቄ መመርመሩ ተገቢ ሆናል፡፡ በኢ.ፌ.ዲ.ሪ ህገ መንግስት ላይ ይህን የሚፈቅድለት ግልጽ ድንጋጌ የለም፡፡ ብዙዎች የመስኩ ምሁራን እንደሚስማሙበት ግን ህግ አውጭው ስልጣኑን በከፊል በውክልና ለማስተላለፍ ከህግ አውጭነቱ የሚመነጭ ስልጣን (inherent power) አለው፡፡ እንዲያም ሆኖ ያለገደብ ከህዝብ የተሰጠውን ስልጣን በውክልና ስም ሊያስተላልፍ አይችልም፡፡

በመሰረቱ በውክልና ስልጣን የሚወጣ ህግ ከመንግስት አስተዳደር እየተለጠጠ መምጣት ጋር ተያያዥ የሆኑ አስገዳጅ ሁኔታዎች ያመጡት ክስተት ነው፡፡ ስለሆነም እንደ ልዩ ሁኔታ እንጂ በመርህ ደረጃ ተቀባይነት የለውም፡፡ ህግ አውጭው ምንም እንኳን በከፊል ስልጣኑን ማስተላለፍ ቢኖርበትም የፖሊሲ ጥያቄዎችን የሚነኩ መሰረታዊ ጉዳዮች በደንብ ወይም በመመሪያ እንዲወሰኑ ውክልና መስጠት የለበትም፡፡ የተፈጻሚነቱ ወሰኑ በህግ አውጪው በሚወጣው ህግ ላይ የሚታዩ ቀዳዳዎችን ለመድፈን ብሎም የፖሊሲ ጥያቄዎችን በማይነኩ ዝርዝርና ጥቃቅን ቴክኒካል ጉዳዮች መገደብ አለበት፡፡ ከዚህ አንጻር አፈጻጸሙ በጠባቡ ሊሆን ይገባዋል፡፡


ብቁና ውጤታማ አስተዳደር እንዲሰፍን የአስተዳደር መ/ቤቶች በህግ የተሰጣቸውን ስልጣን፣ ተግባርና ግዴታ በተጨባጭ ማሳካት ይጠበቅባቸዋል፡፡ ስኬት እንዲኖር ደግሞ የማስፈፀም ስልጣን ብቻውን በቂ አይሆንም፡፡ ጠቅለል ያለ ይዘት ያላቸው በፓርላማ የሚወጡ ህጐች የፖሊሲ አቅጣጫዎችን ከመጠቆም ባለፈ ቴክኒካልና ዝርዝር ጉዳዮችን ስለማይዳስሱ በየጊዜው ለሚነሱ ችግሮች ወቅታዊና ውጤታማ ምላሽ ለመስጠት ይሳናቸዋል፡፡ ስለሆነም አስተዳደራዊ ድንጋጌ የማውጣት ስልጣን አስፈላጊነት ከሁለት አቅጣጫዎች ማለትም ከአስተዳደር ስራ ውጤታማነት እና ከህግ አውጭው ውስንነት አንፃር ሊቃኝ ይችላል፡፡

አስፈላጊነቱ ጎልቶ ቢታይም በመስኩ ሊቃውንት ጠንካራ ተቃውሞ ሳይገጥመው አልቀረም፡፡ እንደ ብዙዎች እምነት የአስተዳደር መ/ቤቶች ህግ የማውጣት ስልጣን በዜጐች መብት ላይ በሩን ዘግቶ ወደ አምባገነናዊነት የሚያመራ አደገኛ አካሄድ ነው፡፡ ተቃውሞው መሰረቱ ንድፈ ሀሳባዊ ሲሆን የስልጣን ኢ-ተወካይነት ንድፈ ሀሳብ (theory of non delegability of power) አንዱ ነው፡፡ በላቲን potestas delegari non potest delegare ተብሎ ሲጠራ በእንግሲዝኛው power once delegated should not be re-delegated የሚል ይዘት አለው፡፡ ይህም ወደ አማርኛ ሲመለስ ‘በውክልና የተሰጠ ስልጣን እንደገና በውክልና ሊተላለፍ አይችልም’ እንደ ማለት ነው፡፡ በአጭር አገላለፅ ህግ አውጭው ህግ የማውጣት ስልጣኑን የሚያገኘው ከመራጩ ህዝብ እንደመሆኑ ይህን በአደራ የተቀበለውን ስልጣን እንደገና (በድጋሚ) በውክልና ማስተላለፍ የለበትም ማለት ነው፡፡a

የህግ አውጭነት የስልጣን ምንጩ ህዝብ ነው፡፡ የአንድ አገር ህዝብ ተወካዮቹን ሲመርጥ ችሎታና ብቃታቸውን መሰረት አድርጐ ‘ያስተዳድሩኛል፤ ለእኔ ይሰሩልኛል፣ ትክክለኛውን ህግ ያወጡልኛል’ በሚል እምነት ጥሎባቸው ነው፡፡ ህግ አውጭው በውክልና በአደራ ከህዝቡ የተቀበለውን ስልጣን በአግባቡ በመገልገል ልማት፤ እድገት፤ ፍትህ፣ መልካም ስርዓትና ሰላም የሚያሰፍኑ ህጐችን ማውጣት አለበት፡፡ ህዝቡ ድምፁን ሰጥቶ ተወካዮቹን ሲመርጥና ስልጣን ሲሰጥ ይህን የህግ አውጭነት ስልጣን ላልተመረጡ ግን ለተሾሙ ስራ አስፈፃሚዎች በውክልና እንዲያስተላልፉት አይደለም፡፡ ከዚህ ሀሳብ በተቃራኒ ስልጣን በውክልና ከተላለፈ ህዝቡ ድምፅ ሰጥቶ ባልመረጣቸው ስራ አስፈፃሚዎች እየተገዛ ነው፡፡

ሁለተኛው የውክልና ህግ ንድፈ ሀሳባዊ ተቃውሞ ከስልጣን ክፍፍል መርህ (separation of powers) የሚነሳ ሲሆን ዞሮ ዞሮ መሰረቱ የአስተዳደር በደል እንዲንሰራፋ ያደርጋል የሚል ነው፡፡ በስልጣን ክፍፍል መርህ መሰረት ህግ ማውጣት ለህግ አውጭው፤ ህግ መተርጐም ለፍርድ ሰጭው፤ ህግ ማስፈፀም ለአስፈፃሚ ተብሎ የእያንዳንዱ የመንግስት አካል ስልጣኑ ተመድቦና ተለይቶ ተሰጥቷል፡፡ አንድ የመንግስት አካል በተደራራቢነት ከአንድ በላይ ስልጣን የያዘ እንደሆነ ከራሱ በላይ ተቆጣጣሪ የሌለው ስልጣኑን እንዳሻው የሚጠቀም አምባገነን ይሆናል፡፡ ስለሆነም ስራ አስፈፃሚው ከተመደበለት ህግ የማስፈፀም ተግባር በተጨማሪ በደንብና መመሪያ ስም ህግ የሚያወጣ ከሆነ ሁለት የመንግስት ስልጣናትን ደርቦ ስለመያዙ ያም የስልጣን ክፍፍል መርህን መጣሱ ግልጽነቱ ጐልቶ የሚታይ ሀቅ ነው፡፡

ከላይ በተጠቀሱት ሁለት ንድፈ ሀሳብ ተቃውሞዎች መሰረት በውክልና የሚወጣ ህግ አስተዳደራዊ አምባገነናዊነት፤ የአስተዳደር ብልሹነት እና በስልጣን አለአግባብ መገልገል እንዲሰራፋ ያደርጋል በሚል ከመስኩ ባለሙያዎች የሰላ ሂስና ትችት ሲገጥመው ቆይቷል፡፡ ለምሳሌ እንግሊዝ አገር ውስጥ ሎርድ ሄዋርት የተባሉ የተከበሩ ዳኛና ምሁር በአገራቸው በየጊዜው በፍጥነት እያደገ የመጣውን የአስተዳደር መ/ቤቶች በውክልና ህግ የማውጣት ስልጣን ‘The New Despotism’ በሚለው መጽሐፋቸው እ.ኤ.አ. በ1931 ዓ.ም. ያቀረቡት ጠንካራ ተቃውሞ የእንግሊዝ ፓርላማ ስለጉዳዩ የሚያጠና አጣሪ እንዲሾምና ምርመራ እንዲያደርግ ምክንያት ሆኗል፡፡b ይሁን እንጂ ከምርመራው በኋላ የቀረበው የምርመራ ሪፖርት (Committee on Ministers’ Powers Report) የደረሰበት ድምዳሜ የውክልና ህግ እንግሊዝ ውስጥ በፍጥነት እያደገ መሆኑን ይህም በመሰረተ ሀሳብ ደረጃ ተቀባይነት እንደሌለው ካተተ በኋላ በተግባር ግን የግድ አስፈላጊና መቅረት የሌለበት አሰራር መሆኑን በአጽንኦት ገልጿል፡፡c

ከላይ የቀረቡት ንድፍ ንድፈ ሀሳባዊ ተቃውሞዎች አሳማኝ የመሆናቸውን ያህል እየተወሳሰበ ከመጣው የመንግስት አስተዳደር ጋር ተያይዘው የሚነሱ ተግባራዊ ምክንያቶች አስፈላጊነቱን አይቀሬና የበለጠ አሳማኝ አድርገውታል፡፡ የአስተዳደር መ/ቤቶች በህግ አውጭው በሚወጡት አዋጆች ላይ ብቻ ተንተርሰው ውጤታማ አስተዳደር ማስፈን አይቻላቸውም፡፡ በተለያዩ አገራት እንደታየው ህግ አውጭው ከሚያወጣቸው ህጐች በበለጠ የአስተዳደር መ/ቤቶች የሚያወጧቸው መመሪያዎች በፍጥነት እየበዙ መጥተዋል፡፡d በየጊዜው እያደገና እየተወሳሰበ የመጣው የመንግስት አስተዳደር ስራና የህግ አውጭው ለዚህ ስራ ውጤታማነት የሚያግዙ ህጐችን በአይነትና በጥራት ለማቅረብ አለመቻል በውክልና ስልጣን የሚወጣ ህግ አማራጭ ሳይሆን የግድ መሆኑን ያሳየናል፡፡

ለዚህም ይመስላል ታዋቂው የአስተዳደር ህግ ምሁር ደብሊው ኤች. አር. ዌድ በውክልና የሚወጣ ህግን “መጥፎ ግን አስፈላጊ” (necessary evil) ሲል የሚገልፀው፡፡e ከህግ አውጭው በሚሰጥ ውክልና ህግ የማውጣት ስልጣንን በተግባር አስፈላጊ ካደረጉት ምክንያቶች መካከል የሚከተሉት በዋነኛነት ይጠቀሳሉ፡፡

የግዜ እጥረት፣

ህግ አውጭው ስልጣኑን በከፊል ቆርሶ በውክልና ለማስተላፍ ከሚገደ`ድባቸው ምክንያቶች አንዱ ከራሱ ከህግ አውጭነቱ የሚመነጭ ችግር ነው፡፡ አንድን አዋጅ ለመደንገግ ከሚወስደው ረጅም ጊዜና ተፈጻሚ ከሚሆነው የጠበቀ የስነ-ስርዓት አካሄድ አንጻር ውስብስብ ማህበራዊና ኢኮኖሚያዊ ችግሮችን ለመፍታት የሚያስችሉ ህጐችን በብዛትና በጥራት ለማውጣት አስቸጋሪ ነው፡፡f የተወካዮች ም/ቤትን ያየን እንደሆነ ከሁለት ወራት የክረምት የእረፍት ጊዜ በኋላ በመካከል ለአንድ ወር ለእረፍት ሲበተን ጠቅላላ የስራ ጊዜው ከዘጠኝ ወራት አይበልጥም፡፡g ከዘጠኙ ወራት ውስጥ ቅዳሜና እሁድ ተቀንሰው በሚቀሩት የስራ ቀናት ባሉት አጭር የስራ ሰዓታት ለአገሪቱ አስፈላጊ አዋጆችን ማውጣት አዳጋች ነው፡፡ የመስኩ ምሁራን እንደሚስማሙበት የአንድ አገር ፓርላማ ለተከታታይ 365 ቀናት ድፍን 24 ሰዓታት በስራ ላይ ቢቆይ እንኳን በብዛትና በጥራት ለአገሪቱ አስፈላጊ የሆኑ ህጐችን ማቅረብ ይሳነዋል፡፡h

በተወሰኑ ዘርፎች የተወካዮች ምክር ቤት ያወጣቸው አዋጆች እና በውክልና የወጡ መመሪያዎች ቁጥር ብናነጻጽር ከጊዜ እጥረት ጋር በተያያዘ ያለውን ችግር በተግባራዊ ምልከታ ለመመዘን ያስችለናል፡፡ ምክር ቤቱ ከ1987 ዓ.ም. ጀምሮ ቀረጥና ታክስ በሚመለከት (ማሻሻያዎችን ጨምሮ) ያወጣቸው አዋጆች በቁጥር ከ25 አይበልጡም፡፡ በዚህ ጊዜ ውስጥ እነዚህን ህጎች ለማስፈጸም በተለያየ ቅርጽና ስያሜ ተዋቅረው በነበሩትና በኋላም ከሐምሌ 2000 ዓ.ም. ጀምሮ ስልጣናቸውን አዋህዶ በተረከበው የገቢዎችና ጉምሩክ ባለስልጣንi በውክልና ስልጣኑ 129j መመሪያዎች ወጥተዋል፡፡ የኢትዮጵያ ብሔራዊ ባንክ እንዲሁ የባንክ፣ የመድን፣ የአነስተኛ ፋይናንስ እና የካፒታል ዕቃ ኪራይ ስራዎችን ለመቆጣጠር ከወጡ ወደ ሰባት የሚጠጉ አዋጆችና በሌሎች ልዩ ህጎች በተሰጠው ስልጣን ከ110 በላይ መመሪያዎችን አውጥቷል፡፡k ሌሎች የአስተዳደር መ/ቤቶች እያንዳንዳቸው በቁጥር ወደ 100 የሚጠጉ መመሪያዎች ባይኖራቸውም ከብዛታቸው አንጻር ጠቅላላ ድምሩ ከ1000 ያልፋል፡፡ በዚህ ላይ የሚኒስትሮች ምክር ቤት እስከ ጥር 2008 ዓ.ም. ድረስ ያወጣቸውን 371 ደንቦች ስንጨምርበት በውክልና ስልጣን የሚወጡ አስተዳደራዊ ድንጋጌዎች ቁጥር ወደ ላይ በጣም ያሻቅባል፡፡

የተወካዮች ምክር ቤት እስከ ነሀሴ 2008 ዓ.ም. ድረስ ካወጣቸው አዋጆች ውስጥ ከግማሽ በላይ የሚሆኑት በአጭር ጊዜ የሚወጡ ዓለም ዓቀፍና የሁለትዮሽ ስምምነቶችና የብድር ማፅደቂያ አዋጆች ናቸው፡፡ ስለሆነም ም/ቤቱ ሁሉንም ደንቦችና መመሪያዎች ራሱ ለመደንገግ ቢወስን በተግባር ሊወጣው አይችልም፡፡

የእውቀት እጥረት፣

የህዝብ ተመራጮች ለመመረጣቸው ምክንያት እውቀት ወይም ብቃት አንዱ መለኪያ ቢሆንም ዋናው መስፈርት ግን በህዝብ ዘንድ ያላቸው አመኔታና ተቀባይነት ነው፡፡ በጠቅላላ ጉዳዮች ጠቅላላ እውቀት ይኖራቸዋል ብለን ብንገምት እንኳን ከመንግስት አስተዳደር ውስብስብነት አንፃር ቴክኒካል በሆኑ ጉዳዮች ላይ የበለጠ እውቀትና ችሎታ ያለው በአስተዳደር መ/ቤቶች ዘንድ ነው፡፡l ስለሆነም ፓርላማው ትኩረቱን በፖሊሲ ጉዳዮች ላይ በማነጣጠር ዝርዝር የአፈፃፀም ስልት የሚጠይቁ ቴክኒካል