የአስተዳደር ውሳኔ ምንድነው?


አስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔ ምንድነው?

‘አስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔ’ በአስተዳር ህግ ውስጥ ከቃል አጠቃቀም፣ ከይዘትና ከወሰን አንጻር ቁርጥ ያለ መደብ ከሌላቸው ፅንሰ ሀሳቦች መካከል ጎልቶ ይወጣል፡፡ ውስብስብነቱ ከፅንሰ ሀሳቡ ወካይ ስያሜ ይጀምራል፡፡ ‘አስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔ’ በሚል እዚህ ላይ መጠቀሱም በአገራችን የአስተዳደር ህግ ውስጥ መደበኛ መጠሪያው ቢሆን ይበጃል በሚል ብቻ ነው፡፡ ጀርመኖች እንኳን የራሳቸውን ወካይ ቃል መፍጠር ተስኗቸው አሁን ላይ በአስተዳደር ህጋቸው ዐቢይ ስፍራ ይዞ የሚገኘውን ‘Administrative act’ (Verwaltungsakt) በሚል የሚጠሩትን ፅንሰ ሀሳብ ለማዳበር ከፈረንሳዮች acte administrative ለመዋስ ተገደዋል፡፡

‘Administrative act’ (Verwaltungsakt) is a core concept of the German administrative law. It covers most of the actions of the administrative authorities through which they affect the legal interests of an individual. The origin of this concept is traced from the French concept of acte administratif from which it was borrowed by the German jurists and developed into a German concept since 1826 onwards.a

በእንግሊዝኛው ፍቺ ከወሰድነው Administrative Decision በይዘቱ Administrative Act ውስጥ የሚጠቃለል ሲሆን ዘርፈ ብዙ መልክ ካላቸው አስተዳደራዊ ተግባራት መካከል አንድ ነጠላ ተግባርን ብቻ ይወክላል፡፡ ሆኖም ለአገራችን የአስተዳደር ህግ ‘አስተዳደራዊ ተግባር’ ወይም ‘አስተዳደራዊ ድርጊት’ የሚለውን ቃል ብንጠቀም ገላጭነቱ አይጎላም፡፡ ከዚህ በተጨማሪ አስተዳደራዊ ድንጋጌ ማውጣት እንዲሁም ምርመራ፣ ቁጥጥርና ክትትል ሁሉም የአስተዳደር ተግባራት እንደመሆናቸው ዳኝነታዊ ባህርይ ያላቸውን ተግባራት ለይቶ ለማመልከት ውስን ይዘት ያለውን ቃል መጠቀም ያስፈልጋል፡፡ ከዚህ አንጻር በዚህ መጽሐፍ ውስጥ ‘የአስተዳደር ውሳኔ’ ወይም ‘አስተዳደራዊ’ ውሳኔ የሚለው ቃል ዳኝነታዊ ባህርይ ያላቸውን ተግባራት ለመግለጽ ጥቅም ላይ ውሏል፡፡ ሆኖም በመደበኛ ትርጓሜው አደናጋሪ መልዕክት ስለሚፈጥር ይዘቱንና ፍቺውን በቅድሚያ መወሰን ያስፈልጋል፡፡

እ.ኤ.አ. በ1976 ዓ.ም. በወጣው የጀርመን የአስተዳደር ስነ ስርዓት ህግ የአስተዳደር ተግባር (Administrative act) የሚከተለው ፍቺ ተሰጥቶታል፡፡

Administrative act is every order, decision or other sovereign measure taken by an authority for the regulation of a particular case in the sphere of public law and directed at immediate external legal consequences.b

ወደ አማርኛ ስንመልሰው፤

የአስተዳደር ተግባር ማለት ቅርብና ውጫዊ የህግ ውጤት የሚያስከትል በህዝብ አስተዳደር ህግ ማዕቀፍ ውስጥ አንድን ልዩ ሁኔታ ለመቆጣጠር ሲባል ስልጣን ያለው አካል የሚሰጠው ትዕዛዝ፣ ውሳኔ ወይም ሌላ ማናቸውም ሌላ ሉዓላዊ እርምጃ ነው፡፡

በትርጓሜው ውስጥ ተጨማሪ ሰፊ ማብራሪያ የሚሹ ንዑስ ሀሳቦች ታጭቀዋል፡፡ ሆኖም በአጭሩ ለማስቀመጥ ያህል በጀርመን የአስተዳደር ህግ የአስተዳደር ተግባር ማለት ህግ ለማስፈጸምና የአስተዳደር ስራ ለማከናወን ስልጣን የተሰጣቸው ተቋማት ይህን ህዝባዊ ስልጣናቸውን (public functions) በመገልገል የሚሰጡትን ትዕዛዝ፣ ውሳኔ ወይም ማናቸውም በማድረግ፣ ባለማድረግ የሚገለጽ እርምጃ ሁሉ ያጠቃልላል፡፡ ይህም ማለት በውል ወይም ከውል ውጪ ኃላፊነት ህጎች ስር የሚሸፈኑ ግላዊ ድርጊቶች፣ ውሳኔዎች፣ እርምጃዎች ወዘተ…በአስተዳደር ተግባር ስር አይሸፈኑም፡፡

በትርጓሜው ላይ ‘ልዩ ሁኔታ ለመቆጣጠር’ ሲባል ተግባሩ ህጋዊ ውጤት እንደሚያስከትል ወሰኑም በአንድ ልዩ ሁኔታ ላይ ያነጣጠረ እንጂ ጠቅላላ ተፈጻሚነት እንደሌለው ያመለክታል፡፡ ስለሆነም የበታች ሠራተኛ ለበላይ ኃላፊ የሚያቀርበው የውሳኔ ሀሳብ፣ ሪፖርት ወይም የምርመራ ውጤት ራሱን ችሎ ህጋዊ ውጤት የማይከተለው በመሆኑ እንደ አስተዳደራዊ ተግባር አይቆጠርም፡፡ በአንድ ዘርፍ በተሰማሩ ነጋዴዎች ላይ የተወሰደ እርምጃ (ለምሳሌ ስጋ ሻጮች ማሟላት ያለባቸው የጥራት ደረጃ) ከላይ በተቀመጠው ትርጓሜ ውስጥ አይወድቅም፡፡ ምክንያቱም ተፈጻሚነቱ ሁሉንም የዘርፍ ነጋዴዎች ስለሚያቅፍ ጠቅላላነት ይታይበታል፡፡ በመጨረሻም ህጋዊ ውጤቱ በአስተዳደሩ ውስጣዊ መዋቅር ተወስኖ የሚቀር (ለምሳሌ በአንድ ነጋዴ ላይ እርምጃ እንዲወሰድ የበላይ ኃላፊው ለበታች ሠራተኛ የሚያስተላልፈው ማሳሰቢያ) ከሆነ በአስተዳደራዊ ተግባር ውስጥ አይመደብም፡፡

የአሜሪካው የፌደራል አስተዳር ስነ ስርዓት ህግ ተፈጻሚነቱ አስተዳደራዊ ድንጋጌ የማውጣት (rule making) እና አስተዳደራዊ ዳኝነት (adjudication) የመስጠት ሂደቶች ላይ ነው፡፡ በህጉ ላይ በተሰጠው ፍቺ አስተዳደራዊ ዳኝነት ማለት በውጤቱ ‘ትዕዛዝ’ የሚያቋቁም የአስተዳደር ሂደት (agency process for the formulation of an order) ነው፡፡ ትዕዛዝ የሚለው ቃል በአስተዳደር ስነ ስርዓት ህጉ ላይ ፍቺ የተሰጠው ሲሆን ይዘቱ እንደሚከተለው ይነበባል፡፡

order means the whole or a part of a final disposition, whether affirmative, negative, injunctive, or declaratory in form, of an agency in a matter other than rule making but including licensing.c

‘ትዕዛዝ’ ከጀርመኑ ‘የአስተዳደር ተግባር’ ጋር ሲነጻጸር መሰረታዊ ልዩነት አይታይበትም፡፡ ጉዳዩን የሚቋጭ የመጨረሻ መሆኑ ህጋዊ ውጤት እንደሚከተለው ይጠቁመናል፡፡ በይዘቱ አንድ ድርጊት እንዳይፈጸም፣ እንዲፈጸም ወይም የአንድ ሁኔታ (መብት) መኖር/አለመኖር የሚያረጋግጥ መግለጫ ወይም ከአስተዳደራዊ ድንጋጌ ማውጣት ውጪ ያለ ማንኛውም የመጨረሻ እልባት የሚሰጥ ነው፡፡

በመቀጠል የአገራችን የፌደራል ረቂቅ የአስተዳደር ስነ ስርዓት ህግ (1993) የተጠቀመውን ቃል እና አፈታቱን እናያለን፡፡ በረቂቅ አዋጁ የትርጓሜ ክፍል አንቀጽ 2 /2/ እንደተመለከተው አስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔ ማለት፤

ማናቸውም አስተዳደራዊ ባህርይ ያለውን ተግባር ወይም ነገር ከመፈጸም ጋር የተያያዘ ውሳኔ ወይም ውሳኔ አለመስጠትን ጨምሮ ቅጣትን ለመጣል፣ ወይም መፍትሔ ለመስጠት ወይም የመከላከል ዓላማ ወይም ውጤት ያለው በአስተዳደር ተቋማት የሚሰጥ ማናቸውም ውሳኔ፣ ትዕዛዝ ወይም ብይን [ነው፡፡]

የትርጓሜውን ይዘት ይበልጥ ለመረዳት የእንግሊዝኛውን ቅጂ መመልከቱ ጠቃሚ ነው፡፡

Administrative Decision means any decision, order or award of an agency having as its object or effect the imposition of a sanction or the grant or refusal of relief, including a decision relating to doing or refusing to do any other act or thing of an administrative nature, or failure to take a decision

በቀጣይ በ2001 ዓ.ም. በተዘጋጀው ረቂቅ የአስተዳደር ስነ ስርዓት ህግ አዋጅ አርቃቂዎቹ የተለየ አገላለጽ መጠቀም መርጠዋል፡፡ በረቂቁ አንቀጽ 2/2/ ላይ አስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔ እንደሚከተለው ተተርጉሟል፡፡

አስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔ ማለት ተጨባጭ ሕጋዊ ግንኙነቶችን ለመመስረት፣ ለማሻሻል፣ በምርመራ ለማረጋገጥ ወይም የተሟላ ለማድረግ ለአንድ ጉዳይ የተወሰነ መፍትሔ የመስጠት ዓላማ ያለውና በግለሰብ ወይም በተወሰኑ ሰዎች ላይ ተፈጻሚነት ያለው በተቋሙ የሚሰጥ ሕጋዊ ውሳኔ ሲሆን፣ አስተዳደራዊ ባህርይ ባለው ተግባር ወይም ጉዳይ ላይ ውሳኔ አለመስጠትንም ይጨምራል፡፡

በሁለቱም ረቂቆች ላይ የሚታየው ገላጭነት የጎደለው የቋንቋ አጠቃቀም አብዛኛው ሰው በቀላሉ አይረዳውም፡፡ ከዚህም አልፎ የህግ ባለሞያዎች፣ ዳኞች እና አስተዳዳሪዎች በጋራ የሚያግባባ አገላለጽ አልያዘም፡፡ ለምሳሌ በተለምዶ ሰርኩላር በሚል ስያሜ ጠቅላላ ተፈጻሚነት ኖሯቸው የሚተላፉ ትዕዛዞች የአስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔና የአስተዳደራዊ ድንጋጌ ከፊል ባህርያት ይጋራሉ፡፡ ሆኖም በአንደኛው ስር ለመፈረጅ ሁለቱም ትርጓሜዎች ግልጽ መለያ መስፈርት አላካተቱም፡፡ ለአስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔ ትርጓሜ ለማበጀት ጥሩ መነሻ የሚሆነው የፍርድ ቤት ውሳኔ ነው፡፡ ሁለቱን የሚያመሳስላቸው ብዙ ነጥቦች አሉ፡፡ አስተዳደራዊ ሆነ የፍርድ ቤት ውሳኔ ሁለቱም ምንጫቸው ዳኝነታዊ ስልጣን ነው፡፡ በዳኝነት ፍሬ ነገሩን የማረጋገጥና በተረጋገጠው ፍሬ ነገር ላይ ህጉን ተፈጻሚ የማድረግ ተግባራት ይከናወናሉ፡፡ ዓላማው አከራካሪ የሆነ አንድ ተለይቶ የታወቀ ጉዳይ (particular case) መቋጨት ነው፡፡ ጉዳዩን በመቋጨት የሚነገረው ትዕዛዝ፣ ብይን ወይም ውሳኔ በባለጉዳዮች ወይም ሶስተኛ ወገኖች ላይ ህጋዊ ውጤት ያስከትላል፡፡ እነዚህ ወሳኝ ባህርያት በጀርመኑ እና የአሜሪካው የአስተዳደር ህጎች ላይ በግልጽ ተለይተዋል፡፡

በአንድ የአስተዳደር መ/ቤት የተፈጸመ ተግባር የአስተዳደር ውሳኔ ነው ወይስ አይደለም? የሚለው ጥያቄ በአስተዳደር ህግ ውስጥ መሰረታዊ ከሚባሉት ውስጥ አንዱ ነው፡፡ ጥያቄው ተቋሙ ካሉት ጠቅላላ የማስተዳደር (ህግ ማስፈጸም)፣ ከፊል የህግ አውጭነት እና ከፊል የዳኝነት ስልጣናት መካከል የትኛውን እየተገለገለ እንደሆነ የሚለይበት ነው፡፡ የጥያቄው ሌላ መልክ ሲታይ ተቋሙ የፈጸመው ተግባር በባህርዩ ዳኝነታዊ ነው ወይስ አይደለም? የሚለውን ጥያቄ ይመልሳል፡፡ የውሳኔ ሰጭውን የስልጣን እና የተግባር ዓይነት መለየት በህጉ የአፈጻጸም ወሰን ላይ የራሱ ጉልህ እንደምታዎች አሉት፡፡ ጠቅለል ባለ አነጋገር የአስተዳደር መ/ቤቶች ዳኝነታዊ ወይም የህግ አውጭነት ስልጣናቸውን በሚገለገሉበት ጊዜ ካልሆነ በስተቀር ሙሉ በሙሉ በአስተዳደር ስልጣን ውስጥ የሚወድቁት ድርጊቶች በመደበኛ ፍ/ቤቶች ቁጥጥር ሊደረግባቸው አይችልም፡፡ በሌላ አነጋገር አስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔ ወይም ድንጋጌ ባልሆነ ጉዳይ ላይ የአጣሪ ዳኝነት ስልጣን አይኖራቸውም፡፡ የአስተዳደር መ/ቤቶች ዳኝነታዊ ስልጣናቸውን ተጠቅመው አስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔ ሲሰጡ መሰረታዊ የውሳኔ አሰጣጥ መርሆዎች ተፈጻሚ መሆን ይጀምራሉ፡፡

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